Reports of Brig. Gen. Charles S. Winder, C. S. Army, commanding First Brigade, Jackson's Division, of operations May 23-June 9.
MAY 15--JUNE 17, 1862.--Operations in the Shenandoah Valley.
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 15 [S# 15]

HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, VALLEY DISTRICT,
Camp near Weyer's Cave, Va., June 14, 1862.

Maj. R. L. DABNEY,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Valley District.

       SIR: In obedience to the orders calling for reports of the part taken in the operations of May 23, 24, and ' by this brigade, I have the honor to state that the First Brigade left its bivouac, 3 miles beyond Luray, at 5 a.m. on May 23, and marched to Front Royal, 26 miles, encamping about 9 p.m. The brigade, being the rear brigade but one of the army, arrived too late to participate in the affair of that day.
       On the morning of the 24th instant the brigade marched at 8 a.m. on the Winchester road. At Cedarville it turned to the left, taking the road to Middletown. Firing being heard, the march to Middletown was made without a halt, following the troops in advance toward Strasburg. At this point I received orders to counter-march the command and move toward Winchester. Three regiments (Fourth, Fifth, and Second Virginia Volunteers) having already filed to the left toward Strasburg, were halted; the Thirty-third and Twenty-seventh Regiments Virginia Volunteers were ordered to continue forward to the Valley pike, filing to the right, the batteries following, the four pieces of Captain Poague's battery (two Parrott guns having been detached in the morning and ordered to the front with Col. Turner Ashby) having been ordered to follow the leading regiment. The three regiments halted, were counter-marched, and took the rear of the brigade. The march was continued in quick-time to the vicinity of Newtown without a halt, being 12 miles from Cedarville. Here I found Captain Poague's Parrott guns in action just above the town. The brigade was halted beyond the reach of the enemy's guns.
       I then went forward to see General Jackson, and met a staff officer, with instructions to place the brigade under cover. I directed the batteries to take position in a field on the right of the road and the three leading regiments to be placed in a woods on the left.
       About sunset I received orders to move forward as soon as the enemy's battery should be withdrawn, and a cessation of firing should indicate that. I ordered the brigade forward, and not hearing their guns I moved forward, following Captain Poague's two guns.
       Shortly after dark an ambuscade checked the march. General Jackson sent for two companies of infantry as skirmishers. I directed two companies of the advance regiment (Thirty-third) to move forward, which was promptly done. The enemy were driven off and the march resumed.
       On reaching Burtonsville another ambuscade was encountered, and heavy firing on both sides ensued. Almost at the first fire the advance cavalry stampeded and dashed back on our own men, doing considerable damage, and throwing the Thirty-third Regiment into such confusion that it was impossible to rally it and move forward to support its skirmishers, although I was ably assisted by its field officers. Failing in this attempt, I rode to the rear and ordered up the Twenty-seventh Regiment (Col. A. J. Grigsby) to their support. The fire being heavy, I directed the Second Regiment (Col. J. W. Allen) to move to the right flank and turn the enemy's left, which order was promptly obeyed, but from an impassable marsh and stream it did not succeed in executing the entire movement until the enemy had been driven off in front. The Fifth Regiment (Col. W. S. H. Baylor) was also ordered to take position on the right of the road, but as soon as the position was carried these regiments were recalled and resumed their places in column.
       Two companies of the Fifth Regiment (raised in Winchester) were then, by order of General Jackson, deployed as skirmishers, and the march continued toward Winchester. Skirmishing continued the entire night, the enemy ambuscading wherever opportunity offered. A company of the Second Regiment was also used as skirmishers, being familiar with the country. The skirmishers, supported by the eight companies of the Fifth Regiment, continued to push forward, feeling their way, until daylight. The remainder of the command halted for an hour and slept just previous to daylight.
       The brigade was then advanced to the line of skirmishers at Hollingsworth's Mill. The enemy's skirmishers were occupying a hill just beyond, overlooking Winchester. This I reported to General Jackson, and he replied, "You must occupy that hill." I directed Col. A. J. Grigsby to move to the left, under cover of the hills, and occupy a wooded hill just on the left of the hill occupied by the enemy; Col. J. W. Allen, commanding the Second Regiment, to take position to the right of Colonel Grigsby's, supporting line of skirmishers, and carry the position at the point of the bayonet, in connection with the other regiments; Col. C. A. Ronald, commanding the Fourth Regiment, I placed on the right of the road, to support the extreme right of the line of skirmishers, Colonel Baylor, of the Fifth Regiment, retaining his position. The Thirty-third Regiment, Col. John F. Neff, was held in reserve.
       These dispositions made, I ordered the line to advance, which was done in handsome style, and the position carried. I at the same time ordered up Captain Poague's two Parrott guns and conducted them, under cover of some houses, to the left, directing him to place them in the best position on the crest of the hill. I then rode to the crest of the hill and found Poague's guns just being placed in battery.
       The enemy had opened a heavy fire of shot and shell on our men soon as they occupied this hill, and drove him from some slight breastworks he had held. Seeing their position, I at once ordered Captain Carpenter's battery up and the Thirty-third Regiment to support it. The first part of the order had been anticipated by General Jackson. I directed Carpenter to place his long-range guns in battery on the crest some distance to the right of Poague.
       About this time Captain Poague reported to me that a battery had been placed in position and opened on his battery, enfilading it, and that it was almost impossible to use his guns. I directed Colonel Campbell, whose regiment had just arrived, to support Carpenter's battery; to move to the left, and, with Colonel Grigsby, if practicable, carry the battery. I moved to the right, and ordered Captain Cutshaw, whom I then met with his battery, to place his long-range guns on the left of Carpenter's. The Twenty-first Regiment (Col. John M. Patton) I directed to support Poague's battery, and the Irish Battalion (Captain Leigh) accompanied it. The enemy soon commenced to move by his right flank. Perceiving this, I ordered Colonel Fulkerson, commanding Third Brigade, who reported to me just at that time, to place a regiment on the left flank. Observing the same move on the part of the enemy, I sent two additional regiments there. Not seeing the Thirty-third Regiment in position, I again sent orders for it, and placed it in support of Carpenter's battery. I directed the remaining four pieces of Poague's battery to take position on the left of the Parrott guns; but not finding an eligible position, they were placed just by these guns. This battery was handsomely and gallantly served, being subjected to a heavy fire of artillery and rifles, which did much execution. A regiment behind a stone fence did much execution, whenever cannoneers showed themselves, until I ordered solid shot fired at the wall, which soon drove them off. The batteries in front of Carpenter's having been silenced, I ordered it to be moved to the extreme left; but before it could get into position a charge was made and the enemy driven from his position.
       Captain Cutshaw and Lieutenant Barton being wounded, I placed First Lieut. John C. Carpenter in command of Cutshaw's battery. Seeing General Taylor's brigade in position to charge the left, I ordered all the regiments, except the supports, to the batteries held in readiness for the charge and to move forward simultaneously. All were eager for the charge and moved forward rapidly and in good order, sweeping the entire field, the enemy leaving his position some time before we reached it. When he began the retreat and was in some confusion I directed the batteries to be opened on him; but, owing to their disabled and exhausted condition, could get but one piece of Cutshaw's battery, under Lieutenant Carpenter, to bear on his column. This sent a few well-directed shells among them. The enemy retreated, at first in good order, halting near the town to give a parting shot, and then retreating in the greatest disorder. I pressed forward the artillery, having followed up the movements of the infantry, but their exhausted and disabled condition prevented their following rapidly, and two pieces were of necessity left on the field for several hours before they could be brought up to camp. I pressed forward through and beyond the town. Just beyond I reformed the regiments as far as practicable, they having been much scattered in passing through the streets. On getting them partially formed I moved on the Martinsburg road some 4 miles, when orders were received to encamp. The brigade was encamped in Stephenson's woods.
       It affords me sincere pleasure to bear testimony to the bravery, coolness, and handsome conduct of the officers and men under my command.
       Colonels Allen, Grigsby, and Baylor conducted their regiments forward in admirable order, driving the enemy from the hill, and with true bravery received a heavy fire of artillery and infantry while inactive, awaiting an opportunity to dash forward, which, when the time came, they did in gallant style.
       Colonel Baylor's horse was killed passing through the town and his leg bruised by the ball.
       Colonel Neff kept his regiment quietly in position supporting a battery, though exposed to fire.
       Colonel Ronald advanced through the town in the place assigned him, though unfortunately was not under fire, the enemy having moved everything to his right.
       Of Captains Poague, Carpenter, Cutshaw, and their officers and men I cannot speak too highly. The skill, judgment, and bravery displayed by them at all times, under a heavy fire of artillery and infantry, reflect the greatest credit upon themselves. Opposed by a greater number of guns admirably served, and at times to an enfilading fire, they coolly and manfully stood by their guns, working them with such precision as to silence a greater portion of the enemy's. The loss in these batteries will attest the warm positions they held during the action. The gallant Cutshaw and Barton fell wounded at the same moment, the latter mortally, within sight of his home, containing all most dear to him, for which he was so manfully and courageously fighting, having won the esteem and admiration of all and met a soldier's death in this our glorious cause.
       To my personal staff--Capt. John F. O'Brien, assistant adjutant-general, and Lieut,. McH. Howard and J. M. Garnett, aides-de-camp--I tender my sincere thanks for their readiness and promptness in transmitting my orders, frequently under a heavy fire while doing so.
       The casualties in the brigade are as follows: Killed, 10, rank and file; wounded, 57 [47], rank and file.
       For particulars I have the honor to refer to the reports of the several commanders, herewith transmitted.
       The entire strength of the brigade on going into action was 1,529, rank and file.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
CHAS. S. WINDER,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.


HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, VALLEY DISTRICT,
Camp near Weyer's Cave, Va., June 15, 1862.

Maj. R. L. DABNEY,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Valley District.

       SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this brigade on May 28:
       In obedience to orders from Headquarters Valley District the Fourth, Fifth, Twenty-seventh, and Thirty-third Regiments Virginia Volunteers, with Carpenter's battery, of four pieces, and Poague's, of six, left their camp, 4 miles from Winchester, at 5 a.m., taking up the line of march for Charlestown, following the road passing through Summit Point. The march was without incident until within 5 miles of Charlestown, when I learned the enemy had advanced in force, represented from 4,000 to 5,000, and possessed himself of that place.
       I at once dispatched Lieut. J. M. Garnett, of my staff, to General Jackson, at Winchester, with such information as I had, asking that re-enforcements might be sent. Being without cavalry, I pressed into service all stragglers of that arm I met on the road, some 15 in number, which the gallant Capt. R. P. Chew, whom I met, volunteered to command and advise me of the enemy's movements in front.
       I moved forward cautiously. Captain Chew soon informed me he had met the enemy's pickets (cavalry) and charged them, and they had taken cover in a woods. I ordered two companies of the Fifth Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Funk commanding, to be thrown forward, which was rapidly done, under Captain Burke. The enemy's pickets retired after a few shots.
      On emerging from the woods, some three-quarters of a mile from Charlestown, I discovered the enemy in line of battle, some 1,500 strong (about the strength of this brigade, the Second Regiment having been left in Winchester as a provost-guard), and decided to attack him. As soon as we were discovered he opened upon us with two pieces of artillery. Carpenter's battery was placed in position, the Thirty-third Regiment being ordered to support it. This battery was admirably worked, and in twenty minutes the enemy retired in great disorder, throwing away arms, blankets, haversacks, &c. The pursuit was continued rapidly with artillery and infantry. Captain Poague was ordered up with a gun and howitzer. These, with Carpenter's guns, were placed in position whenever practicable and used with admirable effect, frequently causing the enemy's cavalry to leave the rear of his column and move parallel to it in fields.
       The pursuit was continued to Halltown. On reaching that point I found the enemy in line of battle on Bolivar Heights. I contented myself with the success of the morning, posted my pickets, and encamped a mile from Charlestown. General Ewell arriving about dark, I reported to him.
       It affords me the liveliest satisfaction to bear testimony to the gallantry, coolness, and bravery of the officers and men under my command in this little affair---ever enthusiastic and anxious to move forward, freeing this beautiful valley and its citizens, known to be so loyal, from the miserable vandals who then oppressed them. The enemy wantonly burned the market-house, with a hall, &c., over it, giving as an excuse that some 20 bushels of grain would fall into our hands.
       We captured 10 horses and equipments, 1 captain, and 8 privates First Maryland Cavalry, with some stores. Our casualties, 1 wounded, in Thirty-third Regiment Virginia Volunteers, by shell.
       My thanks are eminently due, and the same are hereby tendered, to Captain Chew for his able assistance and to the great amount of information given me as to the country, thus enabling me to press forward rapidly when totally ignorant of the country myself.
       To my staff, Captain O'Brien and Lieutenants Howard and Garnett, I tender my thanks for their services in transmitting my orders rapidly at all times.
       The strength of the brigade was 1,337, rank and file.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant.
CHAS. S. WINDER,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.


HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE, VALLEY DISTRICT,
Camp near Weyer's Cave, Va., June 15, 1862.

Maj. R. L. DABNEY,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Valley District.

       SIR: I have the honor herewith to report the part taken by this brigade in the operations of the 8th and 9th instant near Port Republic, Va.:
       While quietly in camp on Sunday morning, the 8th instant, between 8 and 9 o'clock, I heard artillery to our right and rear, which I inferred must be that of the enemy. Captain Poague came in at this time and informed me he had ordered his battery to be prepared for action. I approved it, and requested him to transmit to Captain Carpenter, camped just by him, instructions to the same effect. The good judgment of both these officers had anticipated such orders--a most fortunate circumstance indeed, as the enemy were pressing rapidly on our rear. General Jackson rode to my tent at this time and ordered me to send a regiment to the bridge over the Shenandoah at Port Republic in double-quick time. I at once sent orders to Col. J. W. Allen, commanding Second Regiment, to conduct his regiment to that point. Mounting my horse, I rode in the direction of the bridge. Passing Poaguc's battery, I observed a Parrott gun hitched up and ordered it to follow me. About one-fourth of a mile from camp I discovered the position of a battery of the enemy across the river, it sending shell just across the road, but too high to do any damage. The gun arriving, I turned it to the left, to bear on the aforesaid battery, when General Jackson directed me to send it to him on the right. This I did and awaited the arrival of other guns, which were soon brought up and placed in position on the hill commanding the opposite side of [the] river. The second shot silenced the enemy's battery, causing it to limber up and move off. Carpenter's battery arriving, I ordered it placed on the left of Poague's, and the eight pieces of the two batteries to be directed on the retreating battery and column of infantry advancing up the road. The guns were rapidly and admirably served, pouring a heavy and destructive <ar15_740> fire upon the enemy. His column halted, staggered at so warm a reception, wavered, and then retreated down the road, being signally repulsed by the artillery alone. I directed pieces to move to the left, keeping up a constant fire upon him so long as he was within range. Two or more guns were moved a mile beyond the original position. Colonel Allen, Second Regiment, arriving, I directed him to move to the left (General Taliaferro's brigade having gone to the bridge), throwing out skirmishers, guarding against a flank movement by the enemy. The Fourth Regiment, Colonel Ronald, was ordered to support this regiment. The Fifth Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Funk, supported Poague's battery. The Twenty-seventh, Colonel Grigsby, supported Carpenter's battery. The Thirty-third Regiment, Colonel Neff, was advanced on the left and held in position to repel a flank movement, and at night picketed near same point.
       Some few unimportant changes occurred during the day, but the enemy did not again advance within range of our guns. So heavy and well directed was our artillery fire he was obliged to abandon a howitzer and two limbers, which were found in the woods on the following day, being a portion of the battery used against us in the morning. I had observed him trying to remove it and succeeded beyond my expectations in forcing him to leave it, though I knew he had not taken it off by the road on which it advanced. The brigade moved to camp at dark just above Port Republic. The total strength of brigade was 1,334 rank and file in action.
       On the morning of the 9th instant, at 3.45 o'clock, I received orders to have my brigade in Port Republic at 4.45 o'clock. Orders were immediately given, and the head of the brigade reached the point indicated at that hour. I met General Jackson shortly thereafter, who ordered me to move across South River on a temporary foot-bridge being constructed. I sent Lieutenant Garnett to recall Colonel Neff's regiment from picket, and then moved the brigade as indicated. I was ordered to follow the road down the valley. I placed the Second Regiment Colonel Allen, in front, throwing forward two companies as an advance guard. Having proceeded about a mile, the cavalry in front reported the enemy's pickets. General Jackson being near, I referred the officer to him. I then received orders to drive them in, occupy the woods in front, and attack the enemy. I directed Captain Nadenbousch, commanding advance, to deploy skirmishers on either side of the road and move forward; Captain Carpenter to advance two pieces, take post on left of road, and shell the pickets. These orders were rapidly and well executed; the enemy's pickets disappeared and the skirmishers advanced, the line being supported by Colonel Allen. The enemy here opened a rapid fire of shell with great accuracy on the road and vicinity. I was then ordered to send a regiment through the woods to endeavor to turn their battery, also a battery to get a position above them. I directed Colonel Allen to move with his regiment, he being in advance and near the wood, to accomplish this, and Colonel Ronald, Fourth Regiment, to support him; Captain Carpenter to take his battery in same direction to execute the above order. Captain Poague's two Parrott guns I ordered in position on left of road in a wheat field and opened on enemy's battery, the smoke of which only could be seen, the remaining pieces being under cover. Colonel Grigsby, Twenty-seventh Regiment, I ordered to support this battery. Lieutenant-Colonel Funk, Fifth Regiment, was placed on left and to rear of Twenty-seventh Regiment. The Thirty-third Regiment, Colonel Neff, to take position on right of road, but, being detained in crossing the river, this order never reached him. The enemy's fire was so well directed I found it necessary to separate Poague's two guns, placing one some distance on left, ordering Funk's regiment to follow the movement. Here the fire was resumed. The enemy soon placed a battery of two pieces in front and in a commanding position. I sent Lieutenant Garnett, and afterward Captain Poague, to look for a position nearer and more desirable, but none could be found unless the enemy were driven off. I then learned his skirmishers were advancing, and ordered Funk's regiment forward to support extreme left of line, at same time sending to General Jackson for re-enforcements, being greatly outnumbered. Col. H. T. Hays soon reported to me with the Seventh Louisiana Regiment. I directed him to take position on the right of Funk's, and ordered Grigsby's regiment up, placing it on the right of Hays'.
       This line under Hays I ordered to move forward, drive the enemy from his position, and carry his battery at the point of the bayonet. I at the same time directed the remainder of Poague's and a section of Carpenter's battery--the latter having reported it impossible to get through the thick woods or find any position--to be advanced. Colonel Hays moved his command forward in gallant style with a cheer. Seeing his movement I advanced with the artillery, placing the guns in battery just in rear of Hays' line, which I found had been halted behind a fence, the enemy being in such strong force and pouring in such a heavy fire of artillery and rifles. I then sent for re-enforcements, but received none. The men stood it boldly for some time and fought gallantly-many until all their cartridges were gone. Captain Raine reported with two pieces of artillery, one, however, without any cannoneers; this piece I sent from the field, the other being brought into action. I had directed Captain Poague to move with a Parrott gun to the right, and sent Lieutenant Garnett to Carpenter to endeavor to place his section so as to enfilade the enemy. The Thirty-first Regiment Virginia Volunteers (Colonel Hoffman)arrived about this time to relieve Colonel Hays, who was ordered to join his brigade. This change it was impossible to effect, and I held Colonel Hoffman in rear of the batteries for their security, as the infantry line began to waver under the storm of shot, shell, and balls which was being rained upon them. The batteries were moved to rear and I tried to rally the men, placing Hoffman's regiment in live on which to rally; here I partially succeeded, but the enemy so greatly outnumbered us, and, getting within such easy range, thinned our ranks so terribly, that it was impossible to rally them for some time, though I was most ably assisted in my endeavors by my staff, the gallant Hays, Grigsby, Funk, Major Williams (Fifth Regiment), Captains Nadenbousch (Second), and Burke (Fifth Regiment); these came particularly under my observation, though doubtless others did their duty as nobly and bravely. Here one piece of Poague's, I regret to say, fell into the enemy's hands, I having ordered it to halt and fire on his advancing column, where it was disabled, as shown in Poague's report.
       I still endeavored to rally the remainder of this force, and succeeded in getting the Seventh Louisiana, under Major Penn, the colonel and lieutenant-colonel both being wounded, and Fifth Regiment, under Funk. I placed two pieces of Poague's battery in the position previously occupied, and again opened fire on the enemy, he having halted in his advance. A sharp fire from the wood on [the] right told General Taylor's and Allen's forces were engaged. I directed the Parrott gun on the enemy's battery, which was now turned on those forces. I was gratified to loam from General Taylor this fire was of service to him.
       The enemy now moved to his left flank, apparently to surround this command in the woods. Seeing two regiments lying quietly on their arms to the right under the woods, I dispatched Lieutenant Garnett to order them forward rapidly to press the enemy's rear. I then moved forward the artillery with its supports and obtained a far better position. Captain Chew here reported to me and did good execution with his battery, displaying great skill and accuracy in his fire.
       I soon met General Jackson and reported my impressions to him, and was told he had ordered up other troops. Lieutenant-Colonel Garnett (Forty-eighth Regiment) came up, reporting for orders. I directed him to follow the road in double-quick, pressing the enemy hotly in rear and driving him from his position. Major Holliday (Thirty-third Regiment) rode up at this time, and through him I sent orders to Colonel Neff to do the same. The batteries arriving, I continued to advance them as rapidly as possible, pouring in a heavy and well-directed fire on the retreating columns of the enemy, who were now driven from the field, routed at every point. A section of Captain Brockenbrough's battery joined me just as the retreat commenced and was ably handled. The road and woods were shelled and the enemy scattered, in every direction. The pursuit was continued some 4 miles, when I met General Jackson, who was in advance, and by his orders halted all the artillery except two pieces of Chew's battery. The enemy being again driven from their ambuscade, I followed with my command to a point some 8 or 9 miles below Port Republic, when I received orders to return and camp with my wagons, which order was executed, my advance reaching camp on the summit of the Blue Ridge at Brown's Gap at midnight and the batteries at daylight.
       It again affords me sincere and great gratification to bear testimony to the courage, gallantry, fortitude, and good conduct of the officers and men under my command, and to them I return my heartfelt thanks. They fought gallantly and desperately, as our holy cause urged them to do, and though temporarily repulsed, it was only from overwhelming numbers. Although exposed to such a withering fire, the killed are few in number, a kind Providence having guarded many from the great dangers to which they were exposed. Colonels Allen and Ronald were so far separated from me I must refer to their respective reports for the operations of their regiments. To my staff, Captain O'Brien, Lieutenants Howard and Garnett, I tender my sincere thanks for their assistance in transmitting my orders to different points (though under heavy fire frequently after the fight became general), ever ready and prompt.
       The casualties were: Killed--officers, 2; privates, 11. Wounded--officers, 6; privates, 148. Missing--privates, 32. Total, 199. The strength of the brigade was 1,313, rank and file.
       For detailed accounts of the affair I respectfully refer to the reports of the several commanders herewith transmitted.

I am, sir, very respectfully,
CHAS. S. WINDER,
Brigadier-General, Commanding

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