Reports of Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Rowley, U.S. Army, commanding First Brigade
APRIL 27-MAY 6, 1863.--The Chancellorsville Campaign

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXV/1 [S# 39]

HDQRS. 1ST BRIG., 3D DIV., 1ST ARMY CORPS, May 10, 1863.

Capt. E. C. BAIRD,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

        CAPTAIN: I have the honor to make the following report of my command, consisting of the One hundred and twenty-first, One hundred and thirty-fifth, One hundred and forty-second, and One hundred and fifty-first Regiments Pennsylvania Volunteers, and its movements since leaving camp, near Belle Plain, on the 28th ultimo:
        The brigade marched, as ordered, on that day, following the Second Brigade, under Colonel Stone, and halted for the night with the division, within 1 mile of the Rappahannock River, and opposite the ground on which this division was engaged on December 13 last.
        At an early hour the next morning, the brigade was marched to the edge of the woods, where it remained a few minutes, and was then sent back to the encampment of the previous night. The One hundred and thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Colonel Porter, rested for the night (the 28th) on the bank of the river, in a position it took after dark, to support some batteries ranged along the bank, on Mrs. Gray's farm.
        At noon on the 29th, this brigade, with other troops of this division, marched toward the river, and halted in the vicinity of [White Oak] Run, a few rods from the pontoon bridge.
        On the 30th the men were mustered for pay. In the evening of the same day the enemy began shelling the ravine, and continued it for about an hour. The hills rising between this position and the river afforded an excellent shelter against the enemy's missiles, and I quickly moved the regiments to positions where they were well protected. It affords me great pleasure to be able to state that as far as this brigade was concerned the fire of the enemy was perfectly harmless.
        During all of Friday, May 1, my command occupied the same position. At 3 o'clock the troops were in readiness, as ordered, for crossing the river, but the movement was not made.
        On Saturday morning, May 2, we received orders to march, and were about starting when the enemy's batteries on the opposite side of the river again opened upon us, and dropped their shells all around in the ravine; not daunted, however, the line of march was begun under this heavy fire, and, partly protected by a hill, the men moved on. A delay of several minutes occurred in getting my men out of their exposed position, in consequence of the blocking of the way by a regiment of the Second Brigade of this division. I succeeded in getting them extricated in a short time, and the command, with the exception of the One hundred and thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, which was left behind to protect the batteries it had so efficiently supported since the night of the 28th, moved on. The line of march on Saturday was up the Rappahannock River to the United States Ford, where we crossed at sunset. In spite of the heat of that day, and the burdensome loads carried by the men, they bore up manfully, and their march was in excellent order, with little or no straggling.
        The One hundred and thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers did not leave their position below Fredericksburg until late in the morning, and the distance was such that it was found impossible to overtake the remainder of the brigade before it crossed, and, being without a guide, some little delay occurred in this regiment reaching the ford. We encamped for the night near the pontoons. The other regiments of the brigade were marched inward toward the front, where the heavy firing was heard, which point they reached about 12 o'clock. Here the arms were loaded and the men were prepared for immediate action. They were not, however, called into action at this point, but were moved about 1 miles to the right, when the whole division formed in line of battle and lay on their arms the remainder of the night.
        Early Sunday morning, sharpshooters were sent out to ascertain if the enemy were appearing in our front. An hour or two later five companies were sent to the front to do picket duty. The first picket line was formed on the left of that established by General Robinson's division. They were not on their posts long before skirmishing began between our pickets and those of the enemy, which continued steadily during the entire day, the result of which was our line was advanced several hundred yards, and upward of 100 prisoners were taken by the pickets of this brigade alone, besides some 15 or 20 killed and wounded. The loss on our side was 1 killed, 12 wounded, and 36 missing; 4 or 5 of the wounded men are now supposed to be dead, as no intelligence has been received from them.
        Lieutenant Reinhold, One hundred and thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, with 27 men from the same regiment, was placed in the woods as a partial support to the picket line, which was expected to be driven in on the afternoon of Tuesday, May 5, and as nothing has been heard from him it is to be supposed that he and his command were all captured after having been withdrawn from the line.
        At an early hour on the morning of the 6th, the brigade, with the other troops of this corps, recrossed at the United States Ford and marched to the present encampment. The return march was very orderly, and attended with little straggling.
        I take pleasure in adding here that to Captain [Charles H.] Flagg, brigade inspector, and to Lieuts. G. A. Heberton and [William L.] Wilson, of my staff, I am indebted for the promptitude and energy displayed by them in assisting me to carry out orders received from division headquarters and the attention given by them during the entire march to matters connected with my command.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOS. A. ROWLEY,

Brigadier-General, Commanding First Brigade.

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HDQRS. 1ST BRIG., 3D DIV., 1ST ARMY CORPS, May 10, 1863.

Capt. E. C. BAIRD,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

        CAPTAIN: In my report of the operations of this brigade during the late battles, I accidentally omitted to make mention of Lieut. Robert M. Kellogg, One hundred and fifty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanding the sharpshooters, whose conduct while on picket was such as to entitle him to special notice.
        On Sunday morning, under the direction of an officer of my staff, he led his body of sharpshooters, numbering 30 men, 1 miles to the front of our lines, and deployed them at close intervals on the left of the pickets of the Twelfth Massachusetts. After posting the last man, he started for the right of his line, and in passing had to cross a road leading through the tangled woods, when he was surprised by a squad of 7 of the enemy, who overpowered him, and, taking his pistol from him, marched him toward their lines. They had proceeded but a short distance when the whistling of bullets among them revealed the fact that they were pursued, and, while it hastened the steps of the enemy, it somewhat delayed the lieutenant's, who, watching a favorable' opportunity, jumped behind a tree to escape the bullets of the rebels, and in a moment was rescued by his own men.
        In the course of the (lay this body of men, 30 in number, captured over 50 prisoners, killed and wounded 15, and lost but I man.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THOS. A. ROWLEY,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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