Report of Col. R. Lindsay Walker, C. S. Army, Chief of Artillery
JUNE 3-AUGUST 1, 1863.--The Gettysburg Campaign
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/2 [S# 44]
HDQRS. ARTILLERY THIRD CORPS, ARMY NORTHERN VA.,
------ --, 1863.
Major [WILLIAM H.] PALMER,
MAJOR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the artillery of the Third Army Corps, from their leaving the camps near Fredericksburg on June 15, to their return to Culpeper on July 27:
The battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Garnett was ordered to report to Major-General Heth, and Major Poague to Major-General Pender, and the battalion of Lieutenant-Colonel Cutts, under command of Major Lane, to Major-General Anderson, for duty with their divisions. With Major McIntosh's and Major Pegram's battalion of this corps (which was under the command of Captain [E. B.] Brunson until I was joined by Major Pegram, who assumed command on June 30, at Cashtown, Pa.), I left camp on the morning of the 16th, and accompanied the Third Corps to Cashtown, in Pennsylvania, where I arrived June 30, and, in the morning of July 1, I assumed command of all the artillery of the corps, which had made the march to that place without loss excepting that of Lieutenant [J. H.] Chamberlayne, of the Crenshaw battery, and 4 of his men, who were captured by the enemy while on a foraging party for the purpose of securing horses.
Majors Pegram's and McIntosh's battalions moved forward on the morning of the 1st with the divisions of Generals Heth and Pender, and were put in position for action on an eminence about 1 mile west of Gettysburg, from which they opened fire on the enemy with marked effect, finally driving them back out of range. The battalions of Majors Lane and Poague and Lieutenant-Colonels Cutts and Garnett were held in reserve, excepting Captain [Victor] Maurin's battery, of Garnett's battalion, which relieved one of Major Pegram's batteries, whose ammunition had been expended.
On the 2d, the battalions of Pegram, Mcintosh, Lane, and a part of Garnett's battalion, under Major Richardson, were put in position, on the right of the Fairfield turnpike, about 1 mile in advance of the position of the previous day, and, later in the day, Poague's battalion was also put in position still farther to the right. From this position a fire was opened at intervals, enfilading the enemy's guns when they were attempting to be concentrated, and also diverting their attention from the infantry of the First Corps.
The artillery was retained in the same position on the 3d, and kept up an incessant fire from about 1 p.m. to the time of the advance of the infantry. This fire having been continued so long and with such rapidity, the ammunition was almost exhausted.
The battalions remained in this position until dusk on the 4th (excepting a detachment under Major Richardson, who was sent back to report to Brigadier-General Imboden, at Cashtown, on the 4th), when they were withdrawn, and followed with the army in the march to Hagerstown, where the corps arrived on the 7th, and remained in camp.
On the 11th, the whole corps was placed in position for action on the right and left of Saint James' College, where we remained, occasionally firing a few shots to scatter such bodies of the enemy as showed themselves.
On the night of the 13th, the corps left Hagerstown, and followed with the army until we reached Culpeper. Major Richardson, while with General Imboden's command, turned over two guns to Captain [J. F.] Hart, of Hampton's brigade, which he reported he was unable to bring off. He also abandoned three caissons. A court of inquiry has been asked and ordered to inquire into his conduct, and I respectfully refer to the report of Major Richardson for a detailed account of the detachment under his command.
Two guns of Colonel Garnett's battalion were captured, which had been left behind after the teams had given out, and before they could be brought off by fresh horses, which were sent for them. Three guns of Major Pegram's battalion were disabled in action, and sent to the rear, and one of them was captured. All the other guns of the command were brought off safely.
Two of the guns of the First Corps were found on the field at Gettysburg, and brought off.
The conduct of the officers and men of this corps was in the highest degree satisfactory, evincing, as they did without exception, throughout the long and trying marches to and from Pennsylvania, the utmost fortitude and patient endurance under fatigue, and zeal and gallantry in action.
The conduct of Lieutenant [M. H.] Houston, ordnance officer of McIntosh's battalion, is deserving of especial notice for gallantry in serving as cannoneer at one of the guns whose detachment had become disabled.
We have to mourn the loss of Lieutenant [John] Morris, jr., ordnance officer of Pegram's battalion, who was killed on the morning of July 1.
The horses of the command suffered severely (although sufficiently supplied throughout the march with provender) for the want of shoes. On the first day I was placed in command of this corps, I applied to the Ordnance Department for horseshoes and nails. I repeated this application, and on leaving Fredericksburg I telegraphed, urging a supply to be sent to meet me at Culpeper. I am satisfied that most of the horses lost on the march were lost in consequence, because of their lameness in traveling over turnpikes, and especially over the road from Hagerstown to Gettysburg without shoes.
The value of horses abandoned from this cause during the march was, I am persuaded, $75,000, and the injury to others amounted to the same sum.
I append a list of the casualties in this command, and of the expenditures of ammunition.
I herewith transmit the reports of battalion commanders, to which I refer for the more particular account of the part borne by each in the campaign to Pennsylvania and back.
Respectfully, &c., your obedient servant,
R. L. WALKER,
Colonel, and Chief of Artillery, Third Corps
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