The Medical History Of The Confederate States Army And Navy
... COMPRISING THE Official Report of Surgeon Joseph Jones, M. D, LL. D, Surgeon General of the United Confederate Veterans; a Report of the Proceedings of the Reunion of the Survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy, July 2, 1892, at N. B. Forrest Camp, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Address of Surgeon-General Jones, with Statistics of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, 1861-'65, and Results of Great Battles, and Official Correspondence of Dr. Jones as to the Forces and Losses of the Southern States, 1861-'65, with Reference to the Number and Condition of the Surviving Confederate Soldiers who were Disabled by the Wounds and Diseases Received in Defence of the Rights and Liberties of the Southern States.
[The historical value and interest of the following papers is manifest. Professor Joseph Jones, M. D., LL. D., a born devotee to useful research and faithful demonstration is a representative of intrinsic worth, and beneficent life in several generations. He entered the Confederate States Army, modestly, as a private in the ranks, but in a short time his ability constrained his commission as a surgeon, and he was detailed by the able and astute Surgeon-General, Doctor S. P. Moore (whose useful services as a citizen of Richmond, is held in grateful memory), to investigate camp diseases, and the native remedial resources of the South, to supply a vital want which the Federal authorities had created by declaring medicine contraband of war. His own voluminous publications, the experience of the Confederate Medical Staff and published provision and results, attest the priceless value of his acumen and service. He was the first Secretary of the Southern Historical Society, organized in New Orleans, May 1, 1869, and it is held an honor by the present secretary, to be, in a line, his successor.]
1 Official Report of Joseph Jones, M. D., of New Orleans, Louisiana, [Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans, Concerning the Medical Department of the Confederate Army and Navy.
156 WASHINGTON AVE., NEW ORLEANS, LA.,
June 30, 1890.
To his Excellency JOHN B. GORDON, General
Commanding United Confederate Veterans, Atlanta, Ga.:
GENERAL--I have the honor to submit the following:
The Medical Department of the Confederate States was a branch of the War Department, and was under the immediate supervision of the Secretary of War. The Surgeon-General of the Confederate States was charged with the administrative details of the Medical Department--the government of hospitals, the regulation of the duties of surgeons and assistant-surgeons, and the appointment of acting medical officers when needed for local or detached service. He issued orders and instructions relating to the professional duties of medical officers, and all communications from them which required his action were made directly to him. The great struggle for the independence of the Southern States ended twenty-five years ago, and all soldiers in the Confederate army, from the Commanding General to the private in the ranks, were, by the power of the conquering sword, reduced to one common level, that of paroled prisoners of war.
The objects of the Association of Confederate Veterans of 1890 are chiefly historical and benevolent. We conceive, therefore, that the labors of the Surgeon-General relate to two important objects.
First. The collection and preservation of the records of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Second. The determination by actual investigation and inquiry, the numbers and condition of the surviving Confederate soldiers who have been disabled by wounds and diseases, received in their heroic defense of the rights and liberties of the Southern States.
To accomplish the first object, the following circular, No. 1, has been issued:
1. The Collection and Preservation of the Records of Medical Officers of the Confederate Army and Navy.
CIRCULAR NO. 1.
OFFICE OF SURGEON GENERAL UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS)
NEW ORLEANS, LA., April 9, 1890.
To the Survivors of the Medical Corps at the Confederate States Army and Navy:
COMRADES--The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia on this day, twenty five years ago, practically ended the struggle for independence of the Southern States, and during this quarter of a century death has thinned our ranks, and our corps can now oppose but a broken line in the great struggle against human suffering, disease and death. S. P. Moore, Surgeon-General of the Confederate Army, is dead; Charles Bell Gibson, Surgeon-General of Virginia; Surgeons L. Guild, A. J. Ford, J. A. A. Berrian, J. T. Darby, W. A. Carrington, S. A. Ramsey, Samuel Choppin, Robert J. Breckenridge, E. N. Covey, E. S. Gaillard, Paul F. Eve, O. F. Manson, Louis D. Foard, S. E. Habersham, James Bolton, Robert Gibbes, and a host of medical officers of the Confederate States Army are dead. The Association of the United Confederate Veterans was formed in New Orleans June 10, 1889, the objects of which are historical, social and benevolent. Our illustrious commander, General John B. Gordon, of Georgia, has ordered the United Confederate Veterans to assemble in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on July 3, 1890. It is earnestly hoped that every surviving member of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy will meet upon this important occasion, and promote by his presence and his counsels the sacred interests of the United Confederate Veterans. It is of the greatest importance to the future historian, and also to the honor and welfare of the medical profession of the South, that careful records should be furnished to the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, embracing the following data:
First. Name, nativity, date of commission in the Confederate States Army and Navy, nature and length of service of every member of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy.
Second. Obituary notice and records of all deceased members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Third. The titles and copies of all field and hospital reports of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Fourth. Titles and copies of all published and unpublished reports relating to military surgery, and to diseases of armies, camps, hospitals and prisons.
The object proposed to be accomplished by the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, is the collection, classification, preservation and the final publication of all the documents and facts bearing upon the history and labors of the Medical Corps of the Confederates States Army and Navy during the civil war, 1861-'65. Everything which relates to critical period of our national history, which shall illustrate the patriotic, self-sacrificing and scientific labors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate States Army and Navy, and which shall vindicate the truth of history, shall be industriously collected, filed and finally published. It is believed that invaluable documents are scattered over the whole land, in the hands of survivors of the civil war of 1861-'65, which will form material for the correct delineation of the medical history of the corps which played so important a part in the great historic drama. Death is daily thinning our ranks, while time is laying its heavy hands upon the heads of those whose hair is already whitening with the advance of years and the burden of cares. No delay, fellow comrades, should be suffered in the collection and preservation of these precious documents.
To this task of collecting all documents, cases, statistics and facts relating to the medical history of the Confederate Army and Navy, the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans invites the immediate attention and co-operation of his honored comrades and compatriots throughout the South.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
[Signed] JOSEPH JONES, M. D.
FORMATION OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.
The entire army of the Confederate States was made up of volunteers from every walk of life, and the surgical staff of the army was composed of general practitioners from all parts of the Southern country whose previous professional life, during the period of unbroken peace which preceded the civil war, 1861-'65, gave them but little surgery, and very seldom presented a gunshot wound. The study of the hygiene of vast armies hastily collected to repel invasion, poorly equipped and scantily fed, as well as the frightful experience of the wounded upon the battle-field, and the horrible sufferings of the sick and wounded in the hospital, unfolded a vast field for the exercise of the highest skill and loftiest patriotism of the medical men of the South. This body of men, devoted solely to the preservation of the health of the troops in the field, and the preservation of their precious lives, and the surgical care of their mangled bodies and limbs, and the treatment of their diseases in field and general hospital, responded to every call of their bleeding country, and formed upon land and upon sea one indivisible corps, which penetrated all arms of the service, and labored for every soldier, however exalted or however low his rank. When the storm of war suddenly broke upon the Confederacy, and the thunders of cannon were heard around her borders, and her soil trembled with the march of armed battalions; when her ports were blockaded, and medicines and surgical instruments and works were excluded as contraband of war, the medical practitioners of the South gave their lives and fortunes to their country, without any prospect of military or political fame or preferment. They searched the fields and forests for remedies; they improvised their surgical implements from the common instruments of every day life; they marched with the armies, and watched by day and by night in the trenches. The Southern surgeons rescued the wounded on the battle-field, binding up the wounds, and preserving the shattered limbs of their countrymen; the Southern surgeons through four long years opposed their skill and untiring energies to the ravages of war and pestilence. At all times and under all circumstances, in rain and sunshine, in the cold winter and the burning heat of summer, and the roar of battle, the hissing of bullets and the shriek and crash of shells, the brave hearts, cool heads and strong arms of Southern surgeons were employed but for one purpose--the preservation of the health and lives and the limbs of their countrymen. The Southern surgeons were the first to succor the wounded and the sick, and their ears recorded the last words of love and affection for country and kindred, and their hands closed the eyes of the dying Confederate soldiers. When the sword decided the cause against the South, and the men who had for four years borne the Confederacy upon their bayonets surrendered prisoners of war. the members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy returned to their desolate homes and resumed the practice of their profession, spoke words of cheer to their distressed countrymen, administered to the sufferings of the sick and wounded Confederate soldiers, and extended their noble and disinterested charities to the widows and orphans of their bereaved and distressed country.
Whilst political soldiers rose to power and wealth upon the shoulders of the sick and disabled soldiers of the Confederate army, by sounding upon all occasions "their war records," the modest veterans of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy were content to serve their sick, wounded and distressed comrades, asking and receiving no other reward than that "peace which passeth all understanding," which flows from the love of humanity, springing from a generous and undefiled heart. It is but just and right that a Roll of Honor should be formed of this band of medical heroes and veterans.
MAGNITUDE OF THE LABORS OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.
Some conception of the magnitude of the labors performed in field and hospital service, by the officers of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army, may be formed by the consideration of the following general results:
KILLED, WOUNDED AND PRISONERS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY.
Year Killed Wounded Prisoners 1861 1,315 4,054 2,772 1862 18,582 68,659 48,300 1863 11,876 51,313 71,211 1864-1865 22,200 70,000 80,000 Total 1861-65 53,973 194,026 202,283
During the period of nineteen months, January, 1862, July, 1863, inclusive, over one million cases of wounds and disease were entered upon the Confederate field reports, and over four hundred thousand cases of wounds upon the hospital reports. The number of cases of wounds and disease treated in the Confederate field and general hospitals were, however, greater during the following twenty-two months, ending April, 1865. It is safe to affirm, therefore, that more than three million cases of wounds and disease were cared for by the officers of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army during the civil war of 1861-1865. The figures, of course, do not indicate that the Confederacy had in the field an army approaching three millions and a half. On the contrary, the Confederate forces engaged during the war of 1861-1865 did not exceed six hundred thousand. Each Confederate soldier was, on an average, disabled for greater or lesser period, by wounds and sickness, about six times during the war.
LOSSES OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY, 1861-1865.
Confederate forces actively engaged during the war of 1861-1865 600,000 Grand total deaths from battle, wounds and disease 200,000 Losses of Confederate army in prisoners during the war on account of the policy of non-exchange adopted and enforced by the United States 200,000 Losses of the Confederate army from discharges for disability from wounds and disease and desertion during the years 1861-1865 100,000
If this calculation be correct, one-third of all the men actually engaged on the Confederate side were either killed outright on the field or died of disease and wounds; another third of the entire number were captured and held for indefinite periods prisoners of war; and of the remaining two hundred thousand, at least one-half were lost to the service by discharges and desertion.
At the close of the war the available active force in the field, and those fit for duty, numbered scarcely one hundred thousand men.
The great army of Northern Virginia, surrendered by General Robert E. Lee on the 9th of April, 1865, could not muster ten thousand men fit for active warfare. Of this body of six hundred thousand men, fifty-three thousand seven hundred and seventy-three were killed outright, and one hundred and ninety-four thousand and twenty-six wounded on the battle-field. One third of the entire Confederate army was confided to the Confederate surgeons for the treatment of battle wounds; and, in addition to such gigantic services, the greater portion, if not the entire body of the six hundred thousand men, were under the care of the medical department for the treatment of disease.
Well may it be said that to the surgeons of the medical corps is due the credit of maintaining this host of troops in the field. Such records demonstrate, beyond dispute, the grand triumphs and glory of medicine, proving that the physician is the preserver and defender of armies during war.
These records show that the medical profession, however indispensable in the economy of government during peace, become the basis of such economy during war. These statistics show the importance of medicine and its glorious triumphs, and elevate it logically to its true position in the estimation of not only the physician, but in that also of the warrior and statesman. The energy and patriotic bravery of the Confederate soldier are placed in a clear light when we regard, the vast armies of the Federals to which they were opposed.
The whole number of troops mustered into the service of the Northern army, during the war of 1861-1865, was two million seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, or about three times as large as the entire fighting population of the Confederate States. At the time of the surrender of the Confederate armies, and the close of active hostilities, the Federal force numbered one million five hundred and sixteen of all arms, officers and men, and equalled in number the entire fighting population of the Southern Confederacy.
Opposed to this immense army of one million of men, supplied with the best equipments and arms, and with the most abundant rations of food, the Confederate government could oppose less than one hundred thousand war-worn and battle-scarred veterans, almost all of whom had, at some time, been wounded, and who had followed the desperate fortunes of the Confederacy for four years with scant supplies of rations, and almost without pay; and yet the spirit of the Confederate soldier remained proud and unbroken to the last charge, as was conclusively shown by the battles of Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee; the operations around Richmond and Petersburg; the last charge of the Army of Northern Virginia; the defense of Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee river in Georgia, where two hundred and fifty Confederate soldiers, in an open earthwork, resisted the assaults of more than five thousand Federal troops, and never surrendered, but were cut down at their guns; at West Point, Georgia, where there was a similar disparity between the garrison and the assaulting corps, where the first and second in command were killed, and the Confederates cut down within the fort; the defense of Mobile in Alabama, and the battle of Bentonville in North Carolina.
NUMBER OF OFFICERS AND ROSTER OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.
The destruction by fire of the Medical and Surgical Record of the Confederate States, deposited in the Surgeon-General's office in Richmond, Virginia, in April, 1865, has rendered the preparation of a complete Roster of the Medical Corps very difficult, if not impossible.
A general estimate of the aggregate number of medical officers employed in the Medical Department of the Southern Confederacy may be determined by the number of commissioned officers in the Confederate army down to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Each regiment in the Confederate army was entitled to one colonel, one surgeon, and one or two assistant surgeons, and a medical officer was generally attached to each battalion of infantry, cavalry or artillery. Generals, lieutenant-generals, major-generals and brigadier-generals, frequently, if not always, had attached to their staff medical directors, inspectors or surgeons of corps, divisions and brigades.
We gather the following figures from the elaborate and invaluable "Roster of General Officers, etc., in Confederate Service," prepared from official sources by Colonel Charles C. Jones, Jr., of Augusta, Georgia.
CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY.
Generals 6 Provisional Army: Generals 2 Confederate States Army--Regular and Provisional: Lieutenant-Generals 21 Major-Generals 99 Brigadier-Generals 480 Colonels 1,319 Total 1,927
If it be estimated that for each of these officers, one surgeon and two assistant-surgeons were appointed, and served in field and hospital, then the Confederate Medical Corps was composed of about the following:
Surgeons 1,927 Assistant-Surgeons 3,854 Total 5,781
This estimate places the number of surgeons and assistant-surgeons at too high a figure, as may be shown by the following considerations:
a. Many regiments and battalions had not more than two medical officers.
b. The casualties of war were much more numerous, and promotion was much more rapid, amongst the line officers than in the Medical Staff.
A more accurate estimate of the actual number of medical officers actively engaged in the Confederate army during the war 1861-'65, may be based upon the number of regiments, battalions and legions of infantry, cavalry and artillery, furnished by the individual States, during the civil war:
Total number of regiments--infantry 536 " " --cavalry 124 " " --artillery 13 Total 673
These regiments were furnished by the individual States, as follows;
State Infantry Cavalry Artillery Alabama 87 3 --- Arkansas 34 6 --- Florida 9 3 --- Georgia 67 10 --- Kentucky 11 9 --- Louisiana 34 1 1 Maryland 1 --- --- Mississippi 51 5 1 Missouri 15 6 --- North Carolina 60 5 4 South Carolina 33 7 3 Tennessee 70 12 --- Texas 22 32 --- Virginia 64 19 4 Confederate 8 6 --- Total 536 124 13 Grand total regiments 673
Total number of battalions--infantry 67 " " --cavalry 28 " " --artillery 50 Total 145
Total legions--infantry 13 " " --cavalry 3 " " --artillery --- Total 16
Total battalions and legions 161 Total regiments 673 Total regiments, battalions and legions comprising the Confederate army during the war 1861-1865 834
If one surgeon and two assistant-surgeons be allowed to each separate command actively engaged in the field during the civil war, 1861-1865, the numbers would be as follows:
Surgeons 834 Assistant-surgeons 1,668 Total 2,502
The medical officers of the Confederate navy numbered:
Surgeons 22 Assistant-surgeons 10 Passed assistant-surgeons 41 Total medical officers C.S.N 73
If to the above be added the surgeons of the general hospitals, recruiting and conscript camps, the entire number of medical officers in the Confederate army during the war 1861-1865 did not amount to three thousand.
The Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans has endeavored to construct an accurate roster from his labors in the field and hospital during the war, and from the official roll of the Confederate armies in the field, and thus far he has been able to record the names and rank of near two thousand Confederate surgeons and assistant-surgeons.
The official list of the paroled officers and men of the Army of Northern Virginia, surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, April 9th, 1865, furnished three hundred and ten surgeons and assistant-surgeons.
The co-operation in this most important work is solicited from every surviving member of the Medical Corps of the Southern Confederacy.
When perfected, this Roster will be published as a roll of honor and deposited in the archives of the United Confederate Veterans.
The Determination of the Number and Condition of the Surviving Confederate Soldiers who were Disabled by the Wounds and Diseases Received in the Defence of the Rights and Liberties of the Southern Slates.
To accomplish this important and benevolent work, the following inquiries have been addressed to the Governors of the Southern States, namely: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia:
CIRCULAR NO. 2.
OFFICE SURGEON-GENERAL, UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS,
156 WASHINGTON AVENUE, 4TH DISTRICT,
NEW ORLEANS, LA., April 9th, 1890.
To His Excellency Governor ----, State of ----:
The attention of your Excellency is respectfully directed to the fact that in the year 1889 the Association of the United Confederate Veterans was formed in New Orleans for historical, social and benevolent purposes. Our illustrious Commanding-General, His Excellency General John B. Gordon, has ordered the assembling of the Confederate Veterans in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 3d of July, 1890. The welfare of the United Confederate Veterans will be materially promoted if your Excellency will furnish the Surgeon-General with the following data:
1. The number of troops furnished to the Confederate States by the State of ----.
2. Number of wounded during the civil war 1861-1865.
3. Number of killed during the civil war 1861-1865.
4. Number of deaths by wounds and disease.
5. Number of Confederate survivors now living in the State of ----.
6. The amount of moneys appropriated by the State of ---- for the relief and support of the survivors
of the Confederate Army from the close of the civil war in 1865 to the present date, 1890.
7. Name, location and capacity of all establishments, hospitals or homes, devoted to the care
of maimed, sick and indigent survivors of the Confederate States Army.
8. A detailed statement of the moneys expended by the State of ---- for the support of the maimed,
disabled and indigent survivors of the Confederate Army.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.
It was earnestly desired that prompt and full reports on the part of the Chief Executives of the Southern States would have enabled the Surgeon-General to place in the hands of the Commanding General of the United Confederate Veterans, at the first reunion, on the 4th of July, 1890, full statistics of the number of disabled Confederate veterans cared for by the individual States. But replies have been received from only six of the thirteen States of the late Confederacy, and in three of these States it appears that no official assistance has been rendered by the State authorities to the Confederate veterans of 1861-1865.
The Southern States are morally bound to succor and support the men who were disabled by the wounds and diseases received in their service, and the widows and orphans of those who fell in battle. The Confederate soldiers who engaged in the struggle for constitutional liberty and the right of self-government were neither rebels nor traitors; they were true and brave men, who devoted their fortunes and their lives to the mothers who bore them, and their precious blood watered the hills, valleys and plains of their native States, and their bodies sleep in unknown graves, where they shall rest until the last great trumpet shall summon all alike, the conquered and the conqueror.
The survivors have no government with its hundreds of millions for pensions; in the loneliness and suffering of advancing years and increasing infirmities, they can look alone to the States which they served so faithfully in battle, in victory and in defeat.
The noble soldiers who composed the illustrious armies of Northern Virginia and Tennessee made a gallant fight against overwhelming odds for what they believed to be sacred rights and constitutional liberty. The contest was decided by the sword against them.
These matchless soldiers accepted the issue in good faith; they returned to their homes; they resumed the avocations of peace, and engaged in building up the broken fortunes of family and country. These brave soldiers have discharged the obligations of good and peaceful citizens as well as they had performed the duties of thorough soldiers on the battle-field. It has been well said that no country ever produced braver or more intelligent and chivalric soldiers or more industrious, law-abiding and honorable citizens than were the soldiers who surrendered with the Confederate flag. The earth has never been watered by nobler or richer blood than that shed by those who fell beneath its folds.
I have the honor, General, to remain
Your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.
- - - - -
II. Brief Report of the First Reunion of the Survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, July 2, 1890, in N. B. Forrest Camp, Chattanooga, Tennessee--Address of Surgeon-General Joseph Jones, M. D., United Confederate Veterans, Containing War Statistics of the Confederate Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee; also Casualties of Battles of Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga; Engagements from Dalton to Atlanta; Battles Around Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville.
The meeting of the Confederate surgeons, assembled by invitation in N. B. Forrest Camp, was called to order by Surgeon G. W. Drake of Chattanooga, Medical Director of the reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, who explained its objects and extended a hearty welcome in a brief but eloquent address.
Surgeon Drake introduced Joseph Jones, M. D., of New Orleans, Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, who spoke as follows:
"Comrades, survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, we meet for the first reunion since the close of the war between the Northern and Southern States in this Camp, which bears the name of N. B. Forrest, one of the greatest cavalry leaders of the American war of 1861-1865. In the midst of this peaceful and beautiful city, we are surrounded by the mementoes and emblems of war. Dr. J. B. Cowan, Chief Surgeon, and Dr. John B. Morton, Chief of Artillery of General N. B. Forrest's cavalry, and Dr. A. E. Flewellen, Medical Director of the Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg, and many other distinguished representatives of the Confederate Army and Navy, are with us; and we are glad to welcome once more the noble forms and brave countenances of the Confederate veterans.
As the speaker stood this day upon the summit of Lookout Mountain, at an elevation of two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight feet, the mountains and valleys of Tennessee and Georgia presented a panorama of wonderful beauty and unsurpassed historical interest. At the foot of the mountain, which stands silent and alone, like the Egyptian Sphinx, winds the beautiful Tennessee, embracing the growing and active city of Chattanooga, like a crown of jewels, spreading around and over Cameron's Hill, once crowned with stern battlements and frowning cannon. Here at our feet lies Moccasin Bend, as beautiful as a garden with its fields of waiving grain. Up this steep mountain side charged the Northern hosts, and here was fought "The Battle Above the Clouds." The eye ranges over Waldron's Ridge and Missionary Ridge, rendered historic by bloody and desperate battles. Twenty-seven years ago the soldiers of General Bragg, ranged along the crest of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, held the Northern army closely invested within the military and fortified camp of Chattanooga, and sustaining upon their bayonets the fortunes of the Southern Confederacy in the West, they resisted the southward flow of the red tide of war, and for a time protected the mountains, hills and valleys of Georgia from the devastating march of Northern hostile armies.
BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA, GEORGIA.
To the south winds the river of Death along whose densely wooded bank, on the 19th and 20th of September, 1863, lay thirty thousand dead, dying and wounded Confederate and Federal soldiers.
The battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, is justly regarded as one of the most bloody conflicts of the war.
General Bragg's effective force on the first day of the battle, September 19, 1863, exclusive of cavalry, was a little over thirty-five thousand men, which was in the afternoon reinforced by five brigades of Longstreet's corps numbering about five thousand effective infantry, without artillery. The Confederate loss was in proportion to the prolonged and obstinate struggle, and two-fifths of these gallant troops were killed and wounded.
Dr. A. E. Flewellen, the Medical Director of the Army of Tennessee, who is with us at this reunion, active and energetic in body and mind, at the age of seventy years, gave the following estimate of the Confederate losses in this bloody battle of Chickamauga:
BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA--CONFEDERATE LOSSES.
Corps Killed Wounded Total Polk 440 2,891 3,331 Hill 311 2,354 2,665 Buckner 436 2,844 3,280 Walker 367 2,045 2,412 Longstreet 260 1,656 1,916 Forrest 10 40 50 Grand total 1,824 11,830 13,654
The full and revised returns of all the Confederate forces engaged in this bloody battle show that the estimate of the Medical Director of the casualties was below and not above the actual loss.
The aggregate casualties of the 19th and 20th of September, 1863, were officially reported by General Braxton Bragg, as two thousand and twelve killed, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine wounded, and two thousand and eighty-four missing; total, seventeen thousand and ninety five.
From the original reports in the possession of General Braxton Bragg, we consolidated the following:
On the 19th of September, Lieutenant-General Polk's corps numbered thirteen thousand three hundred and thirteen effective officers and men, artillery and infantry; on the 20th, eleven thousand and seventy-five. During the two days' battle, Polk's corps lost, killed four hundred and forty-two, wounded three thousand one hundred and forty-one, missing five hundred and thirty-one; total four thousand one hundred and fourteen.
On the 19th of September, Lieutenant-General Longstreet's corps numbered two thousand one hundred and eighty-nine; on the 20th, seven thousand six hundred and thirty-five; loss, killed four hundred and seventy-one, wounded two thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven, missing three hundred and eleven; total three thousand six hundred and sixty-nine.
Lieutenant General D. H. Hill's corps numbered, September 19th, seven thousand one hundred and thirty-seven; on the 20th, eight thousand eight hundred and twelve; loss, killed three hundred and eighty, wounded two thousand four hundred and fifty-six, missing one hundred and sixty, eight; total three thousand and four.
Major-General S. B. Buckner's corps numbered, September 19th, nine thousand and eighty; on the 20th, six thousand nine hundred and sixty-one; loss, killed three hundred and seventy-eight, wounded two thousand five hundred and sixty-six, missing three hundred and forty-one; total three thousand two hundred and eighty-five.
Major-General W. H. F. Walker's corps, September 19th, seven thousand five hundred and thirty-seven; 20th, five thousand nine hundred and seventy-four; loss, killed three hundred and forty-one, wounded one thousand nine hundred and forty-nine, missing seven hundred and thirty-three; total three thousand and twenty-three.
On the 19th of September the number of Confederate officers and men engaged were:
Infantry officers 3,343 Infantry enlisted men 34,096 Total infantry 37,439 Artillery officers 76 Artillery enlisted men 1,791 Total artillery 1,867 Total infantry and artillery 39,306
On the 20th of September the number of Confederate officers and men engaged were:
Infantry officers 3,648 Enlisted men 35,124 Total infantry 38,772 Artillery officers 68 Enlisted men 1,617 Total artillery 1,685 Total infantry and artillery 40,457
Total officers and men killed, wounded and missing, artillery and infantry, September 19 and 20, 1863: killed, two thousand and twelve; wounded, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine; missing, two thousand and eighty-four; total, seventeen thousand and ninety-five.
RIGHT WING, COMMANDED BY LIEU'T GENERAL LEONIDAS POLK.
Killed Wounded Missing Total Polk's corps 442 3,141 531 4,114 Hill's corps 380 2,456 168 3,004 Walker's corps 341 1,949 733 3,023 1,163 7,546 1,432 10,141
LEFT WING, LIEUTENANT--GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET.
Killed Wounded Missing Total Longstreet's corps 471 2,887 311 3,669 Buckner 378 2,566 341 3,285 849 5,453 652 6,954
Grand total right and left wing: killed, two thousand and twelve; wounded, twelve thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine; missing, two thousand and eighty-four: total, seventeen thousand and ninety-five.
Nearly one-half of the army consisted of reinforcements, just before the battle without a wagon or an artillery horse, and nearly if not quite one-third of the artillery horses were lost on the field; the medical officers had means greatly inadequate, especially in transportation, for the great number of wounded suddenly thrown upon their hands, in a wild and sparsely settled country; many of the wounded were exhausted by two days' battle, with limited supply of water, and almost destitute of provisions.
The fruits of this glorious victory, purchased by an immense expenditure of the precious blood of the Southern soldiers, were lost to the Southern Confederacy through the indecision and indiscretion of the Confederate commander.
CASUALTIES OF THE ARMY OF TENNESSEE, NOVEMBER, 1863.
The casualties of the Army of Tennessee during the subsequent disasters of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Knoxville, Tennessee, are comparatively small in comparison to the magnitude of the operations.
The losses of the Confederate forces were:
Knoxville, November 18 to 29--Killed, two hundred and sixty; wounded, eight hundred and eighty; total, one thousand one hundred and forty.
Lookout Mountain, November 23 and 24--Killed, forty-three: wounded, one hundred and thirty-five; total, one hundred and seventy-eight.
Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863--Killed, three hundred and eighty-three; wounded, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-two; total, two thousand two hundred and sixty-five.
Tunnel Hill, November 27--Killed, thirty; wounded, one hundred and twenty-nine; total, one hundred and fifty-nine.
Aggregate of these engagements--Killed, seven hundred and sixteen: wounded, three hundred and two; total, three thousand seven hundred and forty-two.
We have, then, as a grand aggregate of the Confederate losses in battle in the operations around Chattanooga, Tennessee:
Killed Wounded Missing Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19 and 20 2,012 12,999 2,087 Knoxville, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Nov 18, 29 716 3,026 Total 2,728 16,025 2,087 Aggregate loss 20,840
This estimate does not include the losses in prisoners sustained by General Bragg's army at Knoxville, at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, which would swell the total loss to over thirty-thousand men.
The desperate and bloody nature of the Confederate operations around Chattanooga, in the months of September and November, 1863, will be seen by a brief view of the preceding great battles fought by the armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, and of the subsequent campaigns under General Joseph E. Johnston and General J. B. Hood, in 1864 and 1865.
At the battle of Belmont, Missouri, on the 7th November, 1861, the Confederate forces, under the command of General Leonidas Polk, defeated the Federal forces under General U. S. Grant, with a loss to the former of killed, one hundred and five; wounded, four hundred and nineteen; missing, one hundred and seventeen; total, six hundred and forty-one.
The Confederate operations of 1861 and 1865, as conducted by General Albert Sidney Johnston, at the battle of Shiloh, were characterized by the most appalling disasters.
Fort Henry, Tennessee, fell February 6, 1862, with an insignificant loss of five killed, eleven wounded, sixty-three prisoners.
Fort Donelson, Tennessee, after three days' fighting, February 14, 15 and 16, 1862, surrendered, with a loss of killed, two hundred and thirty-one; wounded, one thousand and seven; prisoners, thirteen thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine; total Confederate loss, fifteen thousand and sixty-seven. With the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, the Cumberland and Tennessee were opened to the passage of the iron-clad gunboats of the Northern army; Kentucky passed under the Federal yoke; Nashville, the proud political and literary emporium of Tennessee, was lost, and this noble State became the common battle-ground of hostile and contending armies.
Both sides levied recruits and supplies from the unfortunate citizens of Tennessee; Columbus, Kentucky, was abandoned, and the fall of Island No. 10, Fort Pillow and Memphis followed.
The unbroken tide of Federal victory in the West was rudely arrested by the armies gathered by General Albert Sidney Johnston and General G. T. Beauregard near the southern shore of the Tennessee, at Corinth, Mississippi.
The brave Confederate commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston sealed his devotion to the Southern Confederacy with his life, on the 6th of April, 1862, whilst leading to victory the gallant soldiers of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee.
At the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, the effective total of the Confederate forces, comprising the Army of Mississippi, before the battle, numbered, forty thousand three hundred and fifty-five, and after the bloody repulse of the 7th, the effective total was only twenty-nine thousand six hundred and thirty-six. General Beauregard, in his official report, places his loss at Shiloh at one thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight killed outright, eight thousand nine hundred and twelve wounded, nine hundred and fifty-nine missing, making an aggregate of casualties of ten thousand six hundred and ninety-nine.
The losses at Shiloh were distributed among the different corps of the Confederate army as follows:
Killed Wounded Missing First Corps, Major-General Polk 385 1,953 19 Second Corps, Major-General Bragg 553 2,441 634 Third Corps, Major-General Hardee 404 1,936 141 Reserve, Major-General Breckenridge 386 1,682 165 Total 1,728 8,012 959
The suffering of the Confederate wounded were great, indeed, as they lay upon the cold ground of Shiloh during the night of the 6th, exposed to the pitiless rain and the murderous fire of the gunboats. In the subsequent siege of Corinth, less than fifty thousand Confederate troops successfully resisted the advance of one hundred and twenty-five thousand Federal troops abundantly supplied with food and water, and armed and equipped with most approved weapons of modern warfare. The losses of the Confederate forces from disease during the siege of Corinth equalled, if they did not exceed, the casualties of the battle of Shiloh.
General Beauregard, by his masterly evacuation of Corinth, eluded his powerful antagonist. The Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee, under the leadership of General Bragg, inaugurated the campaign of 1862 for the recovery of Tennessee and Kentucky.
At the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, the Army of Mississippi, under the command of General Leonidas Polk, lost, killed, five hundred and ten; wounded, two thousand six hundred and thirty-five; missing, two hundred and fifty-one; total, three thousand three hundred and ninety-six.
In the Kentucky campaign of 1862, the Confederate troops under the command of Generals Braxton Bragg and E. Kirby Smith manifested their powers of endurance on long and fatiguing marches, and their excellent discipline in retreating in good order in the face of overwhelming hostile forces.
At the battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863, the Confederate army lost nearly one-third of its number in killed and wounded.
General Bragg, in his official report of this battle, estimates the number of his fighting men in the field on the morning of the 31st of December at less than thirty-five thousand, of which about thirty thousand were infantry and artillery. During the two days' fighting General Bragg's army lost one thousand six hundred killed and eight thousand wounded; total, nine thousand six hundred killed and wounded.
From the 6th of April, 1862, to the close of the year 1863, the Army of Mississippi and Tennessee lost in the battles of Shiloh, Murfreesboro and Chickamauga six thousand and forty-six killed on the field, and thirty-two thousand and thirty-five wounded; total killed and wounded, thirty-eight thousand and eighty-one.
We do not include in this estimate the loss sustained at Perryville, in Bragg's Kentucky campaign, or in numberless skirmishes and cavalry engagements. More than fifty thousand wounded men were cared for by the medical officers of the Army of Tennessee during a period of less than twenty-one months.
The deaths from disease exceeded those from gun-shot wounds, and the sick from the camp diseases of armies greatly exceeded the wounded, in the proportion of about five to one; and during the period specified, embracing the battles of Shiloh and Chickamauga, the sick and wounded of the Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi numbered more than two hundred thousand.
Surely from this mass of suffering humanity, valuable records and practical precepts in the practice of medicine and military surgery must have been evolved. It was and is the solemn duty of every member of the Medical Corps of the Army of Tennessee to place the results of his experience in a tangible form, accessible to his comrades; and no officer, however important his position during the Confederate struggle, has the right to withhold for his personal benefit the Hospital and Medical Records of the Army of Tennessee. These views are applicable to the medical and surgical statistics of the several armies of the rate Confederacy east and west of the Mississippi.
The Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi, under the command of General Joseph E. Johnston, sustained a loss of killed, one thousand two hundred and twenty-one, wounded, eight thousand two hundred and twenty-nine; total, nine thousand four hundred and fifty--in the series of engagements around and from Dalton, Georgia, to the Etowah river, May 7th to May 30th, 1864; series of engagements around New Hope Church, near Marietta, June 1, July 4, 1864.
The Army of Tennessee (the Army of Mississippi being merged into it), under the command of General J. B. Hood, during the series of engagements around Atlanta and Jonesboro July 4 to September 1, 1864, loss, killed, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, wounded, ten thousand seven hundred and twenty-three; total, twelve thousand five hundred and forty-six.
During a period of four months the Armies of Tennessee and Mississippi fought no less than six important battles, and sustained a loss of killed, three thousand and forty-four, wounded eighteen thousand nine hundred and fifty-two. Total killed and wounded, twenty-one thousand nine hundred and ninety-six.
During the month of October, 1864, the Army of Tennessee lost killed, one hundred and eighteen; wounded, six hundred and twenty-two; total, seven hundred and forty. During the month of November: Killed, one thousand and eighty-nine; wounded, three thousand one hundred and thirty-one; total, four thousand two hundred and twenty. These casualties include the bloody battle of Franklin, Tennessee, fought November 30, 1864. As shown by Colonel Mason's official report, made on the l0th of December, ten days after the battle of Franklin, the effective strength of the Army of Tennessee was: Infantry, eighteen thousand three hundred and forty-two; artillery, two thousand tour hundred and five; cavalry, two thousand three hundred and six; total, twenty-three thousand and fifty-three. This last number, subtracted from thirty thousand six hundred, the strength of General Hood's army at Florence, shows a total loss, from all causes, of seven thousand five hundred and forty-seven from the 6th of November to the l0th of December, which period embraces the engagements at Columbia, Franklin, and of Forrest's cavalry.
At the battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee lost in killed and wounded about two thousand five hundred, making the total loss during the Tennessee campaign about ten thousand.
According to Colonel Mason's statement, there were, including the furloughed men, about eighteen thousand five hundred men, effectives, of the infantry and artillery at Tupelo after General Hood's retreat from Nashville. Before the advance of the army into Tennessee on the 6th of November, 1864, the effective strength was thirty thousand six hundred, inclusive of the cavalry.
Thus we find at Tupelo, eighteen thousand five hundred infantry and artillery, and two thousand three hundred and six Forrest's cavalry, to which add ten thousand lost from all causes, and the total sum amounts to thirty thousand eight hundred and six effectives. General Hood thus estimates his loss in the Tennessee campaign to have been in excess of ten thousand.
Of the once proud Army of Tennessee, less than twenty thousand foot-sore, shoeless, ragged soldiers escaped with Hood's advance into Tennessee; at the same time a large army (in numbers at least) of sick, wounded and convalescents crowded the general hospitals in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi.
The life of the Confederacy was bound up in its armies, and when these armies were scattered in the field and their means of sustenance and transportation destroyed, all hope of final success perished. With the Southern Confederacy, the problem was one of endurance and resources; and no Confederate general appears to have comprehended this truth more thoroughly than Joseph E. Johnston. In his masterly retreat from Dalton to Atlanta, he opposed successfully less than fifty thousand Confederate troops against General Sherman's powerful, thoroughly armed and equipped army of more than one hundred thousand brave, stalwart Western soldiers. In his slow retreat, General Johnston was ever ready to give battle, and whilst inflicting greater losses upon his great adversary than his own forces sustained, he, nevertheless, during this incessant fighting maintained the morale, discipline, valor and thorough organization and armament of his soldiers.
The chief executive of the Southern Confederacy, with all his lofty patriotism and burning ardor for the defence of his bleeding country, placed too high an estimate upon his own individual military genius, and failed to grasp in all its bearings the problem of the terrible death struggle of the young nation.
General Hood combined with unbounded energy and dauntless courage and glowing patriotism a fiery ambition for military glory which led him to overestimate his own military genius and resources and at the same time to underestimate the vast resources and military strategy of his antagonist.
When General Hood ceased to confront General Sherman, and opened the way for his desolating march through the rich plantations of Georgia, the Empire State of the South, the fate of the Confederacy was forever sealed. The beleagured Confederacy, torn and bleeding along all her borders, was in no position to hurl her war-worn, imperfectly clad and poorly armed and provisioned battalions upon fortified cities.
The effort to destroy forces aggregating in Georgia and Tennessee near two hundred thousand effectives by a force of less than forty thousand men, which had cut loose from its base of supplies, exceeded the wildest dream of untamed military enthusiasm.
Of the gallant soldiers whose blood reddened the waters of the Tennessee and enriched the hills and valleys of Georgia, Tennessee furnished seventy regiments of infantry and twelve regiments of cavalry.
If the soldiers furnished by Tennessee to the Federal army be added, it is only just to say that she alone furnished more than one hundred thousand men to the American war of 1861-'65, and won afresh the title of the Volunteer State.
Noble Tennessee! The generous and prolific mother of brave soldiers and of beautiful and intrepid women.
What changes have been wrought in a quarter of a century! The songs of birds, the sturdy blows of the woodman's axe have supplanted the roar of cannon and the rattle of musketry; the soil which drank up the blood of Southern soldiers bears its precious burden of golden corn and snowy white fleecy cotton; the laughter of women and prattle of children, and the merry whistle of the plowman fill the places of the brazen trumpet and the martial music of the fife and drum, and the hoarse shouts of contending men, and groans of the wounded and dying; the entrenched camp and ragged village of 1865 has given place to the thriving city of fifty thousand inhabitants, with its workshops, factories, well filled stores, electric lights and railways, and its universities of science and literature.
Here in this historic place the weary invalids of the Northern clime may rest in the shadows and bathe their fevered brows in the cool breezes of these grand mountains.
In this brief record of the heroic efforts of the soldiers of the Armies of Mississippi and Tennessee to defend the Southern States from the Northern invaders, we have time but to make a brief allusion to the defence of the Mississippi river by the Confederate Government, which was characterized by a long chain of disasters.
The fall of Forts Henry and Donelson opened the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the ironclads of the Federals and convoyed and protected their armies as they marched into the heart of the Confederacy. The strong fortifications erected by General Leonidas Polk, at Columbus, Kentucky, were evacuated by the orders of the commanding Generals, Albert Sidney Johnston and G. T. Beauregard.
Island No. 10 fell with a loss of seventeen killed and five hundred prisoners, on the 8th of April, 1862, and the navigation of the Mississippi river was secured by the Federal fleet up to the walls of Fort Pillow, above Memphis, Tennessee.
New Orleans, the commercial emporium of the Confederacy, fell after an inglorious defence (April 18, April 28, 1862), characterized by indecision, incompetence and insubordination, with the trifling loss of one hundred and eighty-five killed, one hundred and ninety-seven wounded, four hundred prisoners; total Confederate loss, seven hundred and eighty-two.
Wise statesmanship dictated that the entire power and resources of the Southern Confederacy should have been concentrated upon the defence of the mouth of the Mississippi river. The future historian of this war will find in the fall of Forts Henry, Donelson, and of New Orleans the first and greatest disasters of the Southern cause from which unnumbered and fatal disasters flowed, and which ended in the final destruction of the Confederacy.
The evacuation of Fort Pillow was followed by the surrender at Memphis, Tennessee, June 6, 1862, after a loss of eighty-one killed and wounded, and one hundred missing, incurred in the resistance offered by the Confederate flotilla, consisting of the gunboats Van Dorn, Price, Jeff Thompson, Bragg, Lovell, Beauregard, Sumpter and Little Rebel.
The defence of Vicksburg includes: The battle of Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862, General J. Breckenridge: killed, eighty-four; wounded, three hundred and sixteen; missing, seventy-eight; total Confederate loss, four hundred and sixty-eight. Iuka, Mississippi, September 19 and 20, General Sterling Price: killed, two hundred and sixty-three; wounded, six hundred and ninety-two; missing, five hundred and sixty, one; total, one thousand five hundred and sixteen. Corinth, Mississippi, October 3 and 4, 1862, Generals Van Dorn and Sterling Price: killed, five hundred and ninety-four; wounded, two thousand one hundred and sixty-two; missing, two thousand one hundred and two; total, four thousand eight hundred and six. Port Gibson, May 1, 1863, Major-General John S. Bowen: killed and wounded, one thousand one hundred and fifty; missing, five hundred; total, one thousand six hundred and fifty. Baker's Creek, May 16, 1863, Lieutenant-General Pemberton: killed and wounded, two thousand; missing, one thousand eight hundred; total, three thousand eight hundred. Big Black River, May 17, 1863, Lieutenant-General Pemberton: killed and wounded, six hundred; missing, two thousand five hundred; total, three thousand one hundred and ten. Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 18 to July 4, 1863: Lieutenant-General J. C. Pemberton: killed, wounded, missing and prisoners, thirty-one thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 27 to July 9, 1863; killed and wounded, seven hundred and eighty: missing and prisoners, six thousand four hundred and eight; total, seven thousand one hundred and eighty-eight. Jackson, Mississippi, July 9 to 26, General Joseph E. Johnston: killed, seventy one; wounded, five hundred and four; missing, twenty-five; total, six hundred.
During the operations in Mississippi and Louisiana on the east bank of the Mississippi river for the defence of Vicksburg, commencing with the battle of Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862, and ending with the evacuation of Jackson, Mississippi, July 19, 1863. the Confederate army lost in killed, wounded and prisoners, fifty-four thousand four hundred and fifteen officers and men--an army equal in numbers to the largest ever assembled upon any battle-field of the war under any one Confederate commander. If we add to this the losses occurring in the field and general hospitals, from sickness, discharges, deaths and desertions, the loss sustained by the Confederate forces in these operations would equal an army of at least seventy-five thousand.
The heart of the Southern patriot stands still at the recital of these humiliating details. The Confederate commander, General J. C. Pemberton, was not merely outnumbered, but he was outgeneraled by his Northern antagonists.
What medical and surgical records have been preserved of this mass of suffering, disease and death? Who has written the medical history of the sufferings of the brave defenders of Vicksburg?
Fellow soldiers and comrades of the Confederate Army and Navy, I accepted the honor conferred upon me by one of the most illustrious captains of the struggle for Southern independence, not because it conferred power or pecuniary emoluments, but solely that I might in some manner further the chosen project of my life. When my native State, Georgia, seceded from the Federal union in January, 1861, I placed my sword and my life at her service. Entering as a private of cavalry, I served in defense of the sea coast in 1861, and although acting as surgeon to this branch of the service, I performed all the duties required of the soldier in the field. Entering the medical service of the Confederate army in 1862, I served as surgeon up to the date of my surrender in May, 1865. Through the confidence and kindness of Surgeon-General S. P. Moore, Confederate States Army, I was enabled to inspect the great armies, camps, hospitals, beleagured cities and military prisons of the Southern Confederacy.
The desire of my soul, and the ambition of my entire life, was to preserve, as far as possible, the medical and surgical records of the Confederate army during this gigantic struggle.
The defeat of our armies and the destruction of our government only served to increase my interest and still further to enrage all my energies in this great work, which, under innumerable difficulties, I have steadily prosecuted in Augusta. Georgia, Nashville, Tennessee, and New Orleans, Louisiana, up to this happy moment when I greet the stern but noble laces of the survivors of the Confederate Army and Navy.
I hold this position, which has neither military fame nor financial resources, solely for the right which it gives me to issue a last appeal for the preservation of the Medical and Surgical Records of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
A veteran of more than four years' active service in the cause of the Southern Confederacy, at the end of a quarter of a century issues his last call of honor and glory to his comrades, which will be found at length in his report to the general commanding, which is now presented for the consideration of the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy. (See preceding report.)
With the researches and records of the speaker taken during the war and subsequently, he has in his possession ample material for a volume relating to the Medical and Surgical History of the Confederate Army of not less than one thousand five hundred pages, and it is to be hoped that the survivors will furnish such data as will enable him to give accurate statements with reference to the labors, names and rank of the medical officers.
INSIGNIA OF THE MEDICAL CORPS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AND NAVY.
In conclusion, comrades, the speaker would urge the adoption of some badge or device which should serve to distinguish the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Southern Confederacy.
The objects of this reunion and of this association are historical, benevolent and social, and the medal or seal which marks its realization should embody within a brief circle these sacred and noble sentiments.
The outer circle bearing the words "Medical Corps Confederate States of America, Army and Navy, 1861-1865," expresses the great historical fact, that within the circle of these four years a nation was born and exhibited to the world its existence, power and valor, in its well organized and efficient army and navy. Within the brief space of time, 1861-1865, was enacted one of the greatest and bloodiest revolutions of the ages, and a peculiar form of civilization passed forever away.
Upon the silver field and embraced by the outer circle rests a golden cross with thirteen stars--the Southern cross--the cross of the battle flag of the Southern Confederacy.
The reverse of the medal bears at the apex of the circle the letters U. C. V., and at the line under, the date 1890. The laurel leaf of the outer circle surrounds the venerated and golden head of the great Southern captain, General Robert E. Lee, who was the type of all that was heroic, noble and benevolent in the Confederate Army and Navy. Grand in battle and victory, General Lee was equally grand and noble in defeat; and his farewell address to his soldiers has been the most powerful utterance for the pacification of the warlike elements of his country and the rehabilitation of the waste places of the South by the peaceful arts of agriculture, manufacturers and commerce.
Whilst the Southern armies were wreathed in victory, the thunderbolts of war, which made wide gaps through their ranks, inflicted irreparable damage. When the brave soldiers of the South sank to rest upon the bosom of their mother earth, they rose no more; the magnificent hosts which watered the plains, valleys and mountains with their precious blood were the typical and noble representatives of their race.
Whilst the North increased in resources and men, as the war went on, the Southern Confederacy was penetrated and rent along all her borders; her fertile plains were overrun and desolated, her gallant sons fell before the iron tempest of war, and her final overthrow and subjugation followed as the night does the day.
Comrades, survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy. is it not our solemn duty to commemorate the deeds of our comrades who yielded up their lives in the struggle for Southern independence, on the battle-field, in the hospital and in the military prison? Shall we not adopt a simple but imperishable medal which may be handed down to our children?"
ORGANIZATION OF A MEDICAL RELIEF CORPS DURING THE REUNION OF THE UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS, AT CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, JULY 2, 3, AND 4, 1890.
An organization of a" Medical" Relief Corps was proposed by Dr. Jones, as accidents were likely to occur amongst the large army of Confederate veterans assembled from the surrounding States in Chattanooga, which would require the prompt aid of the medical profession.
The following physicians were appointed and requested to go on duty and act as a Medical Relief Corps, at the places designated, during the 3d, 4th and 5th of July, beginning at 8 A. M. each day. They will be relieved hourly, and take their turns in the order named:
At L. J. Sharp & Co.'s: Drs. E. A. Cobleigh, J. L. Gaston, G. M. Ellis, J. F. Sheppard, W. P. Creig, E. E. Kerr, W. B. Lee, Frederick B. Stapp, I. S. Dunham, D. E. Nelson, C. S. Wright, R. F. Wallace.
Snodgrass Hill: W. T. Hope, J. L. Atlee, Vaulx Gibbs, C. F. McGahan, W. B. Wells, A. M. Boyd, J. J. McConnell, W. C. Townes, Cooper Holtzclaw, A. P. Van Deever, T. C. V. Barkley.
Court-House: L. Y. Green, J. E. Reeves, G. A. A. Baxter, H. L. McReynolds. H. B. Wilson, F. M. Leverson, B. S. Wert, W. B. Bogart, E. B. Wise, H. Berlin, Y.J. Abernathy, J. R. Rathwell. Joseph Jones, Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.
G. W. Drake, Medical Director.
P. D. Sims, Chief of Staff.
L. H. Wilson, Register.
All visiting physicians and surgeons of the Confederate States Army and Confederate States Navy, are requested to register at L. H. Wilson's drug store, 829 Market street.
After the committee was appointed, Dr. Jones, read his report to General John B. Gordon, Commander United Confederate Veterans.
Dr. J. E. Reeves delivered a short address, in which he complimented Dr. Jones very highly on the manner and thoroughness of his report, and in conclusion offered a motion to appoint a committee to draft suitable resolutions in regard to Dr. Jones' report. The following gentlemen composed the committee: Drs. Drake, Holtzclaw, Hope, Rees and Howard.
A recess of a few minutes allowed the committee time to retire and draft resolutions. The following are the resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:
WHEREAS, We have been honored by the presence of Dr. Joseph Jones, Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans; and
WHEREAS, We have heard his able report to the illustrious General John B. Gordon, Commanding-General of the United Confederate Veterans, whose presence will also grace this reunion occasion; therefore,
Resolved, That we, surviving members of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy, and the medical profession, tender to Dr. Jones our gratitude for his very able presentation of the objects to be gained by the assembling of the survivors of the Medical Corps of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Resolved, That he has placed the whole medical profession of the United States under obligations for his self-sacrificing labor in raising from oblivion the priceless statistics relating to the medical history of the Confederate Army and Navy.
Resolved, That we bespeak the earnest co-operation of the surviving surgeons of the Confederate Army and Navy, in his efforts to procure the imperishable roster his unselfish labors have so auspiciously begun.
Resolved. That a copy of these resolutions be furnished the press for publication.
The following insignia, prepared and presented in silver and gold by Surgeon-General Joseph Jones, will be adopted and worn by the surviving members of the Medical Corps of United Confederate Veterans: Silver disk, one inch in diameter, containing a gold cross, on which are thirteen stars; on face inside edge, "Medical Corps, C. S. A. and C. S. N., 1861-'65." On reverse--" United Confederate Veterans, 1890." Name and rank of officer on both faces. After a short discussion, the meeting adjourned.
The following chairman of committees will look after the visiting physicians from the States which they represent:
Alabama--B. S. West, 714 Market street.
Arkansas--G. A. Baxter, 115 east Eighth street.
Florida--F. T. Smith, 10 west Ninth street.
Kentucky--L. Y. Green, Lookout Mountain.
Louisiana--W. L. Gahagan, 10 west Ninth street.
Maryland--E. A. Cobleigh, 729 Chestnut street.
Mississippi--N. C. Steele, 722 east Seventh street.
Missouri--H. L. McReynolds, 638 Market street.
North Carolina--T. G. Magee, 518 Georgia avenue.
South Carolina--C. F. McGahan, Richardson block.
Tennessee-- P. D. Sims, 713 Georgia avenue.
Texas--E. B. Wise, 713 Georgia avenue.
Virginia--G. W. Drake, 320 Walnut street.
West Virginia--J. E. Reeves, 20 McCallie avenue
New England States--E. M. Eaton, 20 east Eight street.
Middle States--F. M. Severson, 826 Market street.
Western States--J. J. Durand, 208 Pine street.
Northwestern States--E. F. Kerr, 709 Market street.
Canada--G. M. Ellis, 826 Market street.
Foreign Countries--H. Berlin, 600 Market street.
W. DRAKE, M. D., Medical Director.
The Medical Faculty of Chattanooga, under the able leadership of the Medical Director, Dr. G. W. Drake, were untiring in their kind attentions and general hospitality to the survivors of the Medical Corps of the United Confederate Veterans.
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III. Official Correspondence, 1890-'92, of Joseph Jones, M. D, Surgeon-General U. C. V., with reference to the Forces and Losses of the individual Southern States during the War 1861-'65; and with reference to the Number and Condition of the surviving Co federate Soldiers who were disabled by the wounds and diseases received in the defence of the Rights and Liberties of the Southern States.
OFFICE OF SURGEON-GENERAL UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS,
156 WASHINGTON AVENUE,
NEW ORLEANS, LA., February, 1892.
JOHN B. GORDON,
General commanding United Confederate Veterans:
GENERAL--I have the honor herewith to submit the results of an extended correspondence with the Executives of the Southern States which were formerly united under the Confederate Government.
This correspondence presents many facts of interest to the United Confederate Veterans.
Immediately after the acceptance of the honorary position of Surgeon General of the United Confederate Veterans, the author instituted extended inquiries with the design of determining:
1. The number of troops furnished by the Southern States during the Civil War, 1861-1865.
2. The number of killed and wounded, and the deaths caused by disease.
3. An accurate statement of the moneys appropriated by the individual States for the relief of disabled and indigent Confederate soldiers from the close of the war in 1865 to the time of this correspondence in 1892.
4. The names, rank and services of the medical officers of the Confederate Army and Navy.
The nature, and, to a certain extent, the results of these labors will be illustrated by the following facts and correspondence:
STATE OF ALABAMA.
Official communications were addressed to the Governor of Alabama in 1890 and 1891 by the Surgeon-General, United Confederate Veterans, but up to the present date, February, 1892, no reply has been received.
STATE OF ARKANSAS.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, LITTLE ROCK, June 24, 1890.
Professor JOSEPH JONES, M. D., New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--Yours of some time since, received, and answer held with view of securing at least some of the information sought, but my time has been so occupied with official duties that I have been unable to get information. Besides this there are no records, official, in any of the State departments from which such information can be had, hence I can not comply with your request.
We are making an effort to organize the ex-Confederates in this State, and hope to succeed. We have raised a fund and will soon have a home at our capital, so as to be able to support such as are not able to support themselves.
Very truly yours,
JAMES P. EAGLE.
STATE OF FLORIDA.
TALLAHASSEE, May 19, 1890.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:
SIR--Replying to yours of the 9th ultimo to the governor, I have the honor to report as follows, in reply to your queries:
1. Number of troops furnished to the Confederates States army from Florida about fifteen thousand.
2. Number of killed? I have no record showing and no means of estimating.
3. Number of wounded? I have no record showing and no means of estimating.
4. Number of deaths from wounds and disease? No record, etc.
5. Number of survivors? No means of estimating.
6. Amount appropriated for survivors to the present time? $120,934
7. Name, etc., of hospitals and other institutions for the care of the survivors? None.
8. Detailed statement of moneys expended for the relief of the survivors, maimed and disabled?
During the year 1885 there was expended in pensions, $1,777.50.
During the year 1886 there was expended in pensions, $7,653.80.
During the year 1887 there was expended in pensions, $9,368.83.
During the year 1888 there was expended in pensions, $32,647.76.
During the year 1889 there was expended in pensions, $34,486.38.
For the year 1890 there has been appropriated $35,000.
In the year 1885 there were fifty-eight pensioners, receiving pensions at the rate of $5.00 per month.
In the year 1886 there were one hundred pensioners at the same rate.
In the year 1887 the rate was increased to $8.00 per month, and the restriction that the pension must be necessary to support and maintenance was removed. Under this law the number of pensions for the year 1887 increased to one hundred and sixty-seven, and by December, 1888, to three hundred and eighteen, which number had increased July l, 1889, when the law was again changed, to three hundred and eighty-four. The present law grades the pensions according to the disability and restricts it to those who are in need and unable to earn a livelihood. Under this law the pension roll has been reduced to two hundred and eighteen.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D. LANG, Adjutant-General.
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TALLAHASSEE, August 29, 1891.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:
SIR--Replying to yours of the 17th inst., to the governor, I can only make a repetition of my former letter of May 19, 1890, to you on the same subject, to-wit:
1. The number of troops furnished the Confederate States, from Florida, was about fifteen thousand, comprising eleven regiments, and several independent corps of infantry, two regiments of cavalry, and six batteries of artillery. There are no records of these organizations extant, except an abstract of the muster-rolls of the first eight regiments of infantry, and the two cavalry regiments, with the several independent companies, subsequently forming the other three regiments of infantry.
2. There is absolutely nothing to show the number of killed, wounded, or died of disease.
3. There is no roster of the medical staff, but from personal recollection the writer can give the following names:
Dr. Thomas M. Palmer, Surgeon Second Florida regiment, from May --, 1861, till August, --, 1862, when Florida hospital was organized, and he made chief surgeon at Richmond, Virginia. Present address, Monticello, Florida.
Dr. Carey Gamble, surgeon of the First regiment, from April 3, 1861, and afterwards, of the Florida brigade, in the Army of Tennessee; now resides in Baltimore.
Dr. J. D. Godfrey, surgeon Fifth regiment, April, 1862; now resides in Jasper, Florida.
Dr. Thomas P. Gary, surgeon Seventh Florida regiment, Died at Ocala, Florida, 1891.
Dr. Richard P. Daniel, surgeon Eight regiment, May, 1862, till April 9, 1865; now resides in Jacksonville, Florida.
Dr. ---- Hooper, assistant-surgeon Eight regiment; killed at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in line of duty, December 12, 1863.
Dr. Theophilus West, assistant-surgeon Eight regiment, from December 12, 1863, till April 9, 1865; address, Marianna, Florida.
Dr. R. W. B. Hargis, surgeon First regiment; address, Pensacola, Florida.
Dr. J. H. Randolph, surgeon department of Florida; present address, Tallahassee, Florida.
Dr. G. E. Hawes, surgeon Second regiment; present address, Palatka, Florida.
4. Acts passed by Florida Legislature, for aid of Confederate soldiers, see inclosed copies of same.
5. There are no soldiers' homes, hospitals, or other places of refuge for old soldiers in Florida.
6. Have not complete records, and can not furnish copies of such as there are, not being in print.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D. LANG, Adjutant-General of Florida.
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(CHAPTER 3681, NO. 15)
AN ACT to provide an Annuity for Disabled soldiers and Sailors of the State of Florida.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
SECTION I. That any person who enlisted in the military or naval service of the Confederate States, or of this State, during the civil war between the States of the United States, who was a citizen of this State, at the time of enlistment, or who was a bona fide citizen of this State on January 1, 1875, who lost a limb or limbs while engaged in said military or naval service, occasioned by reason of such military or naval service, or who may thus have received wounds or injuries which afterward caused the loss of a limb or limbs, or who may have been permanently injured by wounds or disease contracted while in said service, and who may be a bona fide citizen of this State at the time of making application for the benefits herein provided for, shall be entitled to receive, per annum, in quarterly payments, the following allowance, or pay, to-wit: For total loss of sight, one hundred and fifty dollars; for total loss of one eye, thirty dollars; for total loss of hearing, thirty dollars; for loss of a foot or loss of a leg, one hundred dollars; for loss of all of a hand or loss of (an) arm, one hundred dollars; for loss of both hands or both arms, one hundred and fifty dollars; for loss of both feet or both legs, one hundred and fifty dollars; for loss of one hand or foot, and one arm or leg by same person, one hundred and fifty dollars; for permanent injuries from wounds whereby a leg is rendered substantially and essentially useless, ninety dollars; for permanent injuries from wounds whereby an arm is rendered substantially and essentially useless, ninety dollars; for other permanent injuries from wounds or diseases contracted during the service and while in line of duty as a soldier (or sailor) whereby the person injured or diseased has been rendered practically incompetent to perform ordinary manual avocations of life, ninety-six dollars. The benefits of this section shall inure to the widow of any soldier or sailor who was receiving a pension under the provisions of this act at the time of his death, which pension shall continue during such widowhood.
SEC. 2. That before any person shall be entitled to any of the benefits of this act, he shall make oath before some person authorized to administer oaths, stating in what company, regiment and brigade he was serving when the loss was sustained or injury received, and when it was lost or received, or when and where he contracted the disease which caused the amputation or loss of his limb or limbs, or produced the permanent disability claimed to exist.
SEC. 4. The widow of any soldier or sailor killed, or who shall have since died of wounds received while in the line of duty during the civil war between the States, who has since remained unmarried, shall receive a pension of one hundred and fifty dollars per annum during such widowhood. Proof of such death and continued widowhood shall be made as in other cases herein provided.
SEC. 5. That the benefits of this act shall accrue to the Florida State troops who may be disabled in line of duty when called into service by the authorities of this State.
SEC. 7. This act shall be in force from and after its passage and approval by the governor.
Approved June 8, 1889.
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STATE OF GEORGIA.
We extract the following from the "Report of Madison Bell, Comptroller-General of the State of Georgia, covering the period from August 11, 1868, to January 1, 1869, submitted to His Excellency, Rufus B. Bullock, the Governor, January 12, 1869:"
By section 28, appropriation act of March, 1886, the sum of $20,000 was appropriated to furnish artificial limbs to indigent maimed soldiers; and by section 27 of the appropriation act of December, 1866, the further sum of $30,000 was appropriated for the same purpose. By reference to the books kept by my predecessors, I find that the first-named sum has been about exhausted, and that something over $12,000 of the second appropriation has been drawn. By a resolution of the General Assembly, maimed soldiers, under certain circumstances, were allowed to draw from the treasury the value of an artificial limb in cases where the stump was so short that such limb could not be fitted to it, and several applications of this kind have been presented to me since being in charge of the Comptroller's office, and I have been somewhat perplexed in determining what was the proper course to pursue. Although the appropriation has not been exhausted, and this unfortunate class of our fellow-citizens has commanded my deepest sympathy, yet I have, from a stern sense of official duty, persistently refused to approve any of these claims.
AUGUSTA, GEORGIA, May 15, 1890.
MY DEAR BROTHER--I am this morning in receipt of your letter of the 3d instant, and I regret it is not in my power to furnish accurate answers to your leading inquiries. General Marcus J. Wright, of the War Record Office, War Department, Washington, D. C., will, in my judgment, be best qualified to impart the desired information. All the captured Confederate records are accessible to him. He is much interested in all matters appertaining to Confederate affairs, having been a brigadier-general in Confederate service, and can, without doubt, turn at once to documents on file in the department which will satisfy your inquiries. I believe he will deem it a pleasure to respond, as fully as his leisure will permit, to your inquiries.
I enclose a copy of the latest act passed by the Legislature of Georgia providing for the relief of disabled Confederate soldiers. The provision is not as ample as it should be, but it is better than nothing, and ministers measurably to the comfort of those who are entitled to every consideration.
By public benefaction Georgia has established no hospital or home for the shelter of her disabled Confederate soldiers, but such an institution is now being builded near Atlanta with funds privately contributed by patriotic citizens of the State. When that institution is fairly under way, it is hoped that the General Assembly may be induced to receive it as a public institution, to recognize it as a necessary charity, and to make provision for its proper sustentation.
Your affectionate brother,
CHARLES C. JONES, Jr.
Professor Joseph Jones, M. D.,
P.O. Box 1600, New Orleans, La.
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APPROPRIATING ALLOWANCES FOR MAIMED CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS.
AN ACT to amend an act, approved October 24, 1887, entitled "An act to carry into effect the last clause of article 7, section 1, paragraph 1, of the Constitution of 1877 and the amendments thereto."
SECTION I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Georgia, That the act approved October, 24, 1887, entitled "An act to carry into effect the last clause of article 7, section I, paragraph 1, of the Constitution of 1877, as amended by vote of the people October, 1886," be, and the same is hereby, amended by striking therefrom the first section of said act, and inserting in lieu thereof the following, to-wit: "That any person who enlisted in the military service of the Confederate States, or of this State, during the civil war between the States of the United States, who was a bona fide citizen of this State on the 26th day of October 1886, who lost a limb or limbs while engaged in said military service, occasioned by reason of such military service, or who may have thus received wounds or injuries which afterward caused the loss of a limb or limbs," or who may have been permanently injured while in said service, and who may be a bona fide citizen of this State at the time of making application for the benefits herein provided for, shall be entitled to receive, once a year, the following allowances or pay for the purposes expressed in article 7, section 1, paragraph 1 (and the amendment thereto), of the Constitution of 1877, to wit:
For total loss of sight, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For total loss of sight of one eye, thirty dollars.
For total loss of hearing, thirty dollars.
For loss of all of a foot or loss of leg, one hundred dollars.
For loss of all of a hand or loss of arm, one hundred dollars.
For loss of both hands or both arms, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For loss of both feet or both legs, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For the loss of one hand or foot, and one arm or leg by same person, one hundred and fifty dollars.
For permanent injuries from wounds whereby a leg is rendered substantially and essentially useless, fifty dollars.
For permanent injuries from wounds whereby an arm is rendered substantially and essentially useless, fifty dollars.
For the loss of one finger or one toe, five dollars.
For the loss of two fingers or two toes, ten dollars.
For the loss of three fingers or three toes, fifteen dollars.
For the loss of four fingers or four toes, twenty dollars.
For the loss of four fingers and thumb, or five toes, twenty-five dollars.
For other permanent injury from wounds or disease, contracted during the service, and while in line of duty as a soldier, whereby the person injured or diseased has been rendered practically incompetent to perform the ordinary manual avocations of life, fifty dollars.
The applicant shall also procure the sworn statements of two reputable physicians of his own country, showing precisely how he has been wounded and the extent of the disability resulting from the wound or injury or disease described. All of said affidavits shall be certified to be genuine by the Ordinary of the county where made, and he shall in his certificate state that all the witnesses who testily to applicants' proofs are persons of respectability and good reputation, and that their statements are worthy of belief, and also that the attesting officer or officers are duly authorized to attest said proofs and that their signatures thereto are genuine.
SEC. IV. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That said act be further amended by adding: That the beneficiaries under the Acts of 1879 and the acts amendatory thereof, granting allowances to ex-Confederate soldiers who lost a limb or limbs in the service, shall be entitled to the benefits of this act, at the time the next payments are made to other disabled beneficiaries under the Act of 1887. And the sum necessary to make the payments provided by this act is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated.
SEC. V. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all laws and parts of (*) laws in conflict with this act be and the same are hereby repealed.
Approved December 24, 1888.
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ATLANTA, GA, April 14, 1890.
JOS. JONES, M. D., Surgeon-General, &c:
DEAR SIR--As early as possible the information you ask for will be obtained and forwarded.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
CLEMENT A. EVANS.
ATLANTA, GA., August 27, 1891.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon-General Confederate Veterans,
156 Washington avenue, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--Your letter making inquiry about Confederate veterans has been received. It will be referred to the adjutant-general of the State, Captain Kell, with the request that he reply to it as soon as possible.
Very truly, etc.,
W. J. NORTHEN, Governor.
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ATLANTA, GA., August 27, 1891.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans,
156 Washington avenue, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--Your communication of the 17th inst., headed official business, addressed to His Excellency, W. J, Northen, governor of Georgia, has been placed upon my desk. I at once called upon the governor, and informed him that while much of the information desired in your communication might be obtained by careful research, there was no clerical help in my office, and it was just impossible for me to furnish it. The governor desires me to communicate to you the above information. Regretting that he can not furnish you with the information requested.
With sincere regard, your obedient servant,
JOHN MCINTOSH KELL,
STATE OF KENTUCKY.
FRANKFORT, April 14, 1891.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--In answer to yours of the 9th inst., as to records of Confederate soldiers of Kentucky, allow me to refer you to General Marcus J. Wright, Washington, D. C. He has in charge the war papers of the Confederacy, and he, if anybody, can give the desired information.
ED. PORTER THOMPSON,
Private Secretary to Governor.
P. S.--I can, however, answer as to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. No provision whatever is made by the State for her Confederate soldiers.
E. P. T.
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STATE OF LOUISIANA.
BATON ROUGE, LA., March 12, 1890.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES, New Orleans, La.:
MY DEAR DOCTOR--Being desirous of obtaining the information which you are seeking and which you have requested me to obtain for you, I believe I have obtained the desired information from my last report as secretary of State, from page 107 to page 133 inclusive. I have, this day, mailed a copy to you.
I have also obtained from the adjutant-general's office his last report, which contains the appropriations made by the legislature for wounded and disabled soldiers, as well as to soldiers' home. I have also this day mailed a copy to you.
I have also obtained from the register of the State land office that 103 wounded and disabled soldiers have obtained land warrants under the provisions of Act No. 96, of 1884, and have actually located each 160 acres of land. The widows of Confederate soldiers who are in indigent circumstances are also entitled to the benefits of said act.
There are also, up to date, 564 Confederate soldiers who have obtained land warrants under Act No. 116 of 1886, entitling them to 160 acres of land. I would refer you particularly to the provisions of the last act. You can obtain a copy from the State Library.
In relation to the names of surgeons who served in the Confederate army, I have been informed that so far as the Army of Northern Virginia, you can have the names of the officers at New Orleans. There has been no record kept of the Army of Tennessee, unless Colonel A. J. Lewis can inform you.
I am, very truly, your obedient servant and friend,
FROM THE VALUABLE "ROSTER OF THE LOUISIANA TROOPS MUSTERED INTO THE PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES," PREPARED BY COLONEL OSCAR AROYO, SECRETARY OF STATE.
The total original enlistments were:
LOUISIANA TROOPS MUSTERED INTO THE PROVISIONAL CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY.
Total original enrolment of infantry 36,243 Total original enrolment of artillery 4,024 Total original enrolment of cavalry 10,056 Total original enrolment of sappers and miners 276 Total original enrolment of engineers 212 Total original enrolment of signal corps 76 Total original enrolment of New Orleans State Guard 4,933 Grand total 55,820
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REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF LOUISIANA.
Act 69, approved April 6, 1880, provides substantial artificial limbs for the citizens of this Slate who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, and the adjutant-general is furnished with an official list of those entitled to the benefits of this act, which list serves them as a guide as to the number and kind of artificial limbs to be supplied by the State.
Section 5 of that act provides for the payment of the pro rata pro portion of the appropriation of $12,000 for the year 1880, and of $8,000 for the year 1881; in case the beneficiaries take oath before the clerk of the district court of their parish, stating in their affidavits that they do not believe that the style of artificial limb contracted for by the adjutant-general would be of any practical use to them; in that case the adjutant-general is instructed to approve and indorse on the affidavits the contract price of the artificial limb to which the beneficiaries would be entitled under this act, which affidavits, so indorsed and approved, shall be the voucher of the auditor of public accounts for his warrant on the State treasurer in favor of the beneficiary.
By a latter resolution of the House of Representatives, under date of April 15, 1880, the adjutant-general is authorized and empowered to supplement the list of disabled soldiers, adopted and forwarded to him by the house, by the addition of the names of those at this time citizens of the Stale, who may forward or carry to him an affidavit made before the clerk of their parish that they lost a limb or limbs in the service of the Confederate States, approved by either of their representatives or senators, or by the addition of names of persons forwarded to him by either the Louisiana Division of Army of Northern Virginia, or Louisiana Division of Army of Tennessee.
Under this act 69, and under the resolution of the house referred to, the following artificial limbs are accounted for:
Appropriation for 1880 $12,000 Appropriation for 1881 $8,000
Act 72, approved July 1, 1882, directs that the unexpended balances appropriated by Act No. 69 of 1880, be transferred to and appropriated out of the general fund of 1882 and 1883, to be paid out according to provisions and regulations of Act 69 of 1880.
For artificial limbs in 1882 $1,300 For repairs of same in 1882 $1,000 For artificial limbs in 1883 $1,300 For repairs of same in 1883 $1,071
Under Act 72, the following artificial limbs and repairs to same have been furnished upon proper affidavits on file in this office:
Appropriation for 1882 $2,300 Appropriation for 1883 $2,371
Act 46, approved July 5, 1884, appropriated eight thousand dollars out of the general fund of 1884, and eight thousand dollars out of the general fund of 1885, or so much thereof as may be necessary to supply and keep supplied with substantial artificial limbs the citizens of this State who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States.
Section 2 of this act provides that the list of those entitled to the benefits of the act, now on file in the adjutant-general's office of this State, which may be amended by the adjutant-general by adding the names of other soldiers upon proper proof furnished him, or by striking off the names of those who have died, or who may hereafter die, shall be his guide as to the number and kinds of artificial limbs to be supplied by the State.
Section 3 of the same act authorizes the adjutant-general of the State, with the governor's approval, to contract for the manufacture of the artificial limbs required.
The remaining sections of Act 46 provide that the affidavits or certificates for relief, under this bill, be countersigned by the proper officer of the association of the Army of Northern Virginia or the association of the Army of Tennessee. That those who received artificial limbs or the value of the same in warrants from the State in 1880, are entitled to the benefits of this act in 1884, and those who were supplied in 1881 to the benefits of this act in 1885. That all warrants issued under the same act are made receivable for any licenses or taxes due and payable to the general fund for the year in which they are issued.
Appropriation for 1884 $8,000 Appropriation for 1885 $8,000
Act 115, approved July 8, 1886, directs that the unexpended balances, amounting to thirty-seven hundred and sixty-three dollars, be transferred to and re-appropriated out of the general fund of 1886, 1887. and 1888, to be paid out according to provisions and regulations of Act 46, as follows:
For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1886 $1,500 For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1887 $1,500 For artificial limbs and repairs of same in 1888 $763 $3,763
Appropriation for 1886 $1,500 Appropriation for 1887 $1,500
Act 32, approved June 29, 1888, directs that the unexpended balances, amounting to eight hundred and forty-five dollars and ninety-one cents, appropriated by Act 115, Acts of 1886, be transferred to and appropriated out of the general fund of 1888, to supply the citizens of this State who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, with substantial artificial limbs, and those whose disabilities are such, through wounds, surgical operations, or injuries received in the line of duty as soldiers in the service of the Confederate States. that an artificial limb would be of no practical use, may have the benefit of the pro rata share of this appropriation, as hereinafter provided.
For the loss of the use of a leg, eighty dollars; for the loss of the use of an arm, sixty-five dollars; for the loss of the sight of an eve, sixty-five dollars; for the loss of hearing in one ear, twenty dollars; for the loss of the voice, eighty dollars; for the paralysis of any portion of the body, causing disability, sixty-five dollars. All such cases of disability to be established by the certificate of two medical practitioners of good standing in the parish or district where the beneficiary resides; all applications for relief to be approved by the proper officer of the association of the Army of Northern Virginia, or the Army of Tennessee; that all warrants issued under Act 32 are made receivable for any licenses or taxes due and payable to the general fund of the year in which they are issued.
Appropriation for 1888 $845.91
Act 50, approved July 10, 1888, appropriates six thousand dollars out of the general fund for the year 1889, and nine thousand dollars out of the general fund of 1889 to supply and keep supplied with substantial artificial limbs the citizens of this State who lost a limb or limbs in the military service of the Confederate States, under provisions similar to those expressed in Act 69 of 1880 and Act 46 of 1884.
Appropriation for 1888 $6,000
The artificial limbs manufactured and furnished by Mr. A. McDermott, of New Orleans, under Acts 69 and 72, for the years 1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883, also under Acts 36 and 115, for the years 1884, 1885, 1886, and 1887, having proved satisfactory in every respect, the contract for artificial limbs required by the State of Louisiana to supply its citizens was, for the fifth time, awarded him, under Act 50, for the years 1888 and 1889.
The prices specified in the contract are as follows:
Artificial legs $80 Repairs to an artificial leg $25 Artificial arms $65 Repairs to an artificial arm $15
All estimated for cash or its equivalent in warrants.
The fluctuations in these warrants for the past nine years have been from 60 to 96 cents.
The General Assembly has made the following appropriations for founding and maintaining the "Louisiana Soldiers' Home," established in 1883, on Bayou St. John, near the bridge at the end of Esplanade street, New Orleans:
Out of the revenues of 1883 $2,500 Out of the revenues of 1884 $2,500 For the year ending June 30, 1885 $10,000 For the year ending June 30, 1886 $10,000 For the year ending June 30, 1887 $7,500 For the year ending June 30, 1888 $7,500 For the year ending June 30, 1889 $7,500 For the year ending June 30, 1890 $7,500 $55,000
To the above amount in State warrants may be added seven thousand dollars in cash, received from the two divisions of Louisiana-Confederate Veterans of the Army of Northern Virginia and Army of Tennessee, being the amount realized from the two days' sham battles and entertainments given at the Fair Grounds, New Orleans, in September, 1883.
The Soldiers' Home now affords comfortable quarters, clothing and subsistence to fifty-one Confederate veterans, all disabled from injuries, wounds or loss of limbs in line of duty.
To fully develop and carry out the purposes intended, and to establish on a firm basis the "Louisiana Soldiers' Home," in which all classes are interested, it is hoped that the General Assembly will continue the appropriations on a more liberal scale, for the extention and maintenance of this humane and deserving institution.
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STATE OF MARYLAND.
Respectfully returned, and attention invited to remarks of General Johnson. No organizations of Confederate troops were furnished by the State, which was subjugated by the United States; but many thousands of her citizens went to the aid of the Confederate States, and served in most of them in their commands to the close of the civil war. (?)
Question No. 4. None.
Question No. 5. By act of the legislature a piece of property known as Pikesville Arsenal has been donated for a Confederate home, and now shelters some fifty or more veterans.
J. HOWARD, Adjutant General
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STATE OF MISSISSIPPI.
Official inquiries were addressed to the governor of Mississippi in 1890 and 1891.
No replies have been received to the respectful inquiries of the Surgeon. General United Confederate Veterans, and in the absence of all information from Mississippi, we present with pleasure, for the consideration of the United Confederate Veterans, the following valuable communication from General Allen Thomas, who served with distinguished gallantry at the siege of Vicksburg:
RUNNYMEADE, October 21, 1891.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans:
MY DEAR DOCTOR--Your favor of September, after some delay in finding me, was received, I bare been trying to refresh my memory with reference to your inquiries, but it has been so much weakened by time and trouble that I find I am not able to give you definitely the information you desire.
To your first inquiry: "Names of the medical officers in charge of the Confederate sick and wounded during the siege of Vicksburg, name also of Medical Director?"--
I would say that Dr. Winn, of Holmesville, Avoyelles parish, was my regimental surgeon. Dr. Pierce was his assistant. Dr. Raoul Percy was also on duty; as was Dr. Walker in charge of the First Louisiana Heavy Artillery (Fuller's command). As well as I recollect; Dr. Balfour was Medical Director, and Dr. Burchel, if I mistake not, was in charge of the hospital for the sick and wounded. Of course there were many other members of the medical profession who participated in the siege, but I do not recollect their names,
2. Number of Confederates killed and wounded during the siege of Vicksburg?
Ans. I do not know the exact number, but I can approximate. I understood at headquarters at the commencement of the siege, that we had seventeen thousand men of all arms of the service; there was about eleven thousand paroled. Some time before the surrender, General Pemberton called his general officers together to ascertain if it were possible to cut our way out. This was found to be utterly impracticable. There were but eleven thousand men of all arms of the service fit for duty. And these were not in a condition to sustain continued exertions. We had no horses for either cavalry or artillery. Of course I cannot say positively the number of men paroled, but I heard it frequently stated that it was eleven thousand, leaving six thousand unaccounted for. In my opinion the great majority of these were killed or wounded.
3. Number of Confederate troops (officers and men sick and wounded) surrendered at Vicksburg?
Ans. About eleven thousand.
4. What was the condition, physical and moral, of the Confederate troops at the time of surrender; could the struggle have been protracted much longer?
Ans. The Confederate troops suffered greatly for want of proper provisions, for some time before the end of the siege. A small cup of cornmeal or rice was a day's rations, and the men, from forty-eight days' of service in open trenches, exposed to torrid sun and all weather, unable to move from their positions, without being exposed to a storm of shot and shell, were necessarily much worn and emaciated; so apparent was this, that when I marched my brigade by a group of Federal officers, one of them exclaimed in my hearing, "Great God, can it be possible that these men held us in check for so long a time." The morale of the men was excellent. They could not have been driven; they might have been overwhelmed, but had no thought, so far as I could observe, of retreat or surrender. It would have been impossible for them to have continued the struggle much longer, as it was beyond the endurance of human nature.
5. Are there any authentic accounts of the siege of Vicksburg extant.
Ans. None that I know of. The late Jefferson Davis once asked me to write a history of the siege. I contemplated doing so, but was told that Colonel McCardle, of General Pemberton's staff, was about to publish such a work, which induced me to abandon it. Regretting that I am unable to give you more accurate dates.
I am, with the highest esteem, most truly yours.
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STATE OF MISSOURI.
CITY OF JEFFERSON, April 14, 1890.
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon. General United Confederate Veterans,
156 Washington Avenue New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--I am in receipt of yours of the 9th instant, requesting me to furnish your association data as to the number of troops furnished the Confederate States army by the State of Missouri, etc., and have to reply that there are no records at the capital from which to furnish the information desired. There is an ex-Confederate association in this State, Mr. James Bannerman, Southern hotel, St Louis, being the president thereof, and it is possible that by communicating with him you may be able to ascertain what you desire to know. Regretting my inability to comply with your courteous request, I am
Yours very respectfully,
DAVID R. FRANCIS, Governor
CITY OF JEFFERSON, August 21, 1891.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--I am in receipt of yours of the 17th, asking information concerning the Missouri troops in the Confederate army, and also requesting detailed statement concerning the relations between Missouri and the Confederacy, which would require weeks of labor to prepare, if they could be furnished at all. I have referred that portion of your letter concerning the number of troops from Missouri in the Confederate service to the Adjutant-General's department, of which General Joseph A. Wickham is the head, and have asked the Secretary of State, Captain A. A. Lesueur, who commanded Lesueur's battery in the Confederate service, to make reply to your request for copies of State papers relating to the civil war.
DAVID R. FRANCIS.
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DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
CITY OF JEFFERSON, MO., August 12, 1891.
Dr. JOSEPH JONES, New Orleans:
DEAR SIR--Questions four, five and six of your letter to Governor Francis have been referred to me for reply, and in response would say:
1. This State has passed no law to pension or for the relief of disabled and indigent Confederate soldiers.
2. There is a home for Confederate soldiers at Higginsville, this State, which was established and is being sustained by private contributions, and at which all worthy and needy Missouri ex-Confederates will be received and cared for.
3. In order to comply with your request for "State papers, acts, etc., relating to the civil war," I would be compelled to send you copies of Session Acts, proceedings of constitutional conventions, etc., which would make a package of considerable size, and not knowing whether you would be willing to pay necessary freight or express charges, I thought best to write you for information on that point. If you wish me to send them, please say whether by freight or express.
A. A. LESUEUR, Secretary of State.
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.
CITY OF JEFFERSON, August 24, 1891.
Governor DAVID R. FRANCIS, City:
DEAR SIR--I have the honor to return the enclosed letter, with the information that there is no data on file in this office which will enable me to reply to the questions asked. I would suggest, that perhaps the Southern Historical Society could come nearer furnishing the information asked for than any one, unless it be General Harding.
J. A. WICKHAM, Adjutant General.
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To General Harding:
Can you reply?
D. R. F. Governor.
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CITY OF JEFFERSON, August 25, 1891.
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
156 Washington Avenue, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--In further answer of yours of the 17th, I enclose communications from the Department of the Adjutant-General and from General James Harding, who was a brigadier in the Confederate service. You will observe therefrom that it is impossible to give you definite information on the points mentioned in your letter. I would suggest that you correspond with the Southern Historical Society in the city of St. Louis. Captain Lesueur informs me that he has replied to the queries to which he could give satisfactory answers.
DAVID R. FRANCIS.
RAILROAD AND WAREHOUSE DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF COMMISSIONERS,
CITY OF JEFFERSON, August 25, 1891.
Hon. DAVID R. FRANCIS, Governor of Missouri:
GOVERNOR--Herewith I have the honor to return papers referred to me by you this date.
I believe it to be impossible to give the information desired by Surgeon-General Jones, with any degree of accuracy. There are no records in this State from which it can be obtained, and it is very doubtful if the records of the Confederate war department will furnish it.
As regards question No. I, the information must be very inaccurate, as Senator Cockrell, in his address at Kansas City a few days since, stated that Missouri furnished more men to the Confederate service than any State, except one. I have given this question some attention, and am confident that twenty-five thousand will include every man and boy in the Confederate service from this State. If the Senator is right, I am out of the way only about sixty thousand!
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STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA.
RALEIGH, August 22, 1891.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
P. O. Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--I am instructed by the governor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 17th inst., asking for information in regard to the troops furnished by the State of North Carolina during the Civil War, 1861 to 1865.
The information desired is not in this office, consequently cannot be furnished by the governor. He has referred your letter to the adjutant-general of North Carolina, with request that he furnish you such information as he has in his department.
Very truly yours,
S. F. TELFAIR, Private Secretary.
The following correspondence and documents embrace the sum of our present knowledge, with reference to the Confederate veterans and disabled soldiers of 1861-1865 in the State of South Carolina:
COLUMBIA. S. C., April 11, 1890.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Box 1600, New Orleans, La.:
DEAR SIR--The governor has received yours of the 9th inst., and directs me to inform you that he will take immediate steps to procure as much of the information you desire as can possibly be obtained.
W. ELLIOTT GONZALES,
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OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR-GENERAL,
COLUMBIA, S. C., June 12, 1890.
Surgeon General JONES, New Orleans, La.:
SIR--Herewith I send you some pamphlets relating to late war. The rolls of companies from this State have never been completed, some forty not having yet come in, as per report of 1886.
The number estimated to have been furnished by this State is about sixty thousand, of whom it is believed, from careful estimates, some twelve thousand were killed or died. The rolls received have mainly been made from memory, hence are far from being correct, though some are fairly so. General McCrady has kindly furnished the four pamphlets. I am very sorry I cannot give you more reliable data. It is very doubtful if legislature will ever have the rolls obtained put in book-form.
M. L. BONHAM, Jr., A. and I. General.
Jno. Scofin, Assistant.
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STATE OF TENNESSEE.
NASHVILLE, TENN., April 22, 1890.
Hon. JOSEPH JONES, Surgeon-General, etc.,
156 Washington ave., New Orleans:
DEAR SIR--In response to the request of your letter of recent date, I have endeavored to collect the information sought, and will communicate it to you as soon as I am able to obtain it.
ROBT. L. TAYLOR.
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STATE OF TEXAS.
AUSTIN, May 17, 1890.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans, New Orleans, La.:
SIR,--Your communication of 9th ult., to His Excellency, Governor Ross, has been referred to this office. In reply, I would state that no records, rolls, or papers of any kind, relating to the Texas soldiery in the Confederate Army, can be found here, and, therefore, I have no means of supplying the desired information.
As to indigent or helpless Confederates, private enterprise and humanity have established a "Home" in this city for Confederates, but the State is constitutionally unable to make direct appropriations of money to help said home, but has given the rent from a large public building to this purpose, running from fifteen hundred to two thousand annually in value.
W. H KING, Adjutant-General
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STATE OF VIRGINIA.
RICHMOND, VA., August 22, 1891.
Prof. JOSEPH JONES,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans,
156 Washington avenue, New Orleans, La.:
SIR--You letter of the 17th inst. to Governor McKinney, requesting information as to the number of troops from Virginia in the Confederate armies; character of their organizations; numbers killed, wounded, died of disease, deserted; roster of medical officers, etc., etc., has been referred to me for reply. I regret extremely to have to say that it is not possible to give this information. In the great fire that attended the evacuation of this city by the Confederate forces, April 3, 1865, the office of the adjutant-general, with its entire contents, was destroyed. Whatever records or files it contained capable of throwing light on the subject of your inquiries, were thus lost forever. Of course, also, all headquarters' records and papers with our armies in the field were turned over to United States officers, to whom they surrendered, and are now in Washington.
There is in this State one Soldiers' Home for disabled Confederates. It is located in the suburbs of Richmond, and affords accommodations to about one hundred and thirty inmates. The State appropriates ten thousand dollars a year to their maintenance. Besides, some seventy thousand dollars a year are appropriated for the relief of Confederate veterans disabled by wounds received in service. There are a number of Confederate camps in various parts of the State, the principal one being R. E. Lee Camp, in this city, by which maintenance is given to needy veterans.
JAS. McDONALD, Adjutant-General.
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Whilst the preceding correspondence has yielded far less definite information than was desired, with reference to the forces engaged or the losses incurred by the individual Confederate States during the conflict of 1861-1865, at the same time it is evident that several of the Southern States have acknowledged, in a measure at least, their obligations to assist the disabled and destitute Confederate veterans. Foremost amongst the Southern States stand Florida, Louisiana and Georgia in their devotion to their sons who rallied to their defence in the hour of bloody and desolating war. However insignificant the assistance tendered the disabled Confederate soldiers, in comparison with the great resources of the States formerly composing the Southern Confederacy, let us hope for better, nobler and more generous assistance for the disabled and impoverished Confederate soldiers, and the forlorn and struggling widows of those who yielded up their lives to a just and righteous sense of duty to their native States.
With great respect, General,
I have the honor to remain
Your obedient servant,
JOSEPH JONES, M. D.,
Surgeon-General United Confederate Veterans.
Source: Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. XX. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1892.
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