The Sixteenth Alabama Infantry Regiment
The Sixteenth Alabama infantry was organized at Courtland, August, 1861. It was assigned to General Zollicoffer's brigade, and its first battle was at Fishing Creek or Mill Spring, Ky., January 19 and 20, 1862. It was at Shiloh, April 6th and 7th; Triune, December 27th; Murfreesboro, December 31 to January 5, 1863; in the retreat from Tullahoma to Chattanooga, June 23d to July 4th; Chickamauga, September 19th and 20th; Missionary Ridge, November 23d to 25th; Ringgold, November 27th; in all the great battles under Johnston and Hood during the eventful campaign in 1864, and was particularly distinguished at Jonesboro, August 31st and September 1st, where it met with very severe loss. It participated in the fights at Buzzard Roost, Tunnel Hill and Rocky Face Ridge, February 25 to 27, 1864; around Dalton, May 8th to 12th; Resaca, May 13th to 16th; Adairsville, May 17th; Cassville, May 19th to 22d; Pickett's Mill, May 27th; Kenesaw Mountain, June 9th to 30th; Peachtree Creek, July 20th; Atlanta, July 22d, where it carried the enemy's works by assault and captured two stands of colors. It was also prominent in the battle of Franklin, November 30th, and of Nashville, December 15th and 16th.
Among the distinguished killed were its very gallant colonels, Fred A. Ashford and Brice Wilson at Franklin, Maj. J. H. McGaughey at Chickamauga, Capt. Robert M Gregor at Nashville, Lieut. Wm. A. Patton at Shiloh, Lieuts. David E. Bentley, R. W. Garland, Lewis E. Jackson, Robt. W. Roebuck and Benj. H. Russell at Murfreesboro. Col. William B. Wood, who afterward became eminent on the bench as circuit judge, was the ft:st colonel. He was succeeded by Cols. Alexander H. Helvenston and Frederick A. Ashford. Its lieutenant-colonels were John H. McGaughey, Joseph J. May and John W. Harris.
Extracts From The Official War Records
Vol. IV--(237) Col. W. B. Wood commandant at Knoxville. (244, 246) Letter of General Zollicoffer, Knoxville, November 17, 1861, says he has started battalion of this regiment, with others, on the way to Jamestown, Tenn., and Monticello, Ky. (247) Ordered by Col. S. A. M. Wood back to Knoxville, November, 1861. (387) "Colonel Wood has been ordered from Tuscumbia to Russellville, Tenn.," August 31st. (409) Aggregate present, 867, Knoxville, September 15th. (412) Left at Knoxville with 300 men, able for duty, to guard the magazine. (520) Cumberland Gap, November 5, 1861, General Zollicoffer mentions battalion of the Sixteenth Alabama, in command of Lieutenant-Colonel Harris.
Vol. VII--(80) Report of Gen. George H. Thomas (Union), Logan's Cross Roads, says: "Lieut. Allen Morse and 5 officers of the medical staff, 81 non-commissioned officers and privates, taken prisoners." (82) Order of march, by General Crittenden, January 18, 1862, "Sixteenth Alabama, Colonel Wood, in reserve." (105-110) Report of Gen. G. B. Crittenden of battle of Mill Spring, January 19 and 20, 1862, mentions regiment several times. He says: "The Sixteenth Alabama, which was the reserve corps of my division, commanded by Colonel Wood, did, at this critical juncture, most eminent service." Also reports 9 killed and 5 wounded. (111-113) W. H. Carroll's report of same engagement: "Colonel Wood brought his men forward with the steadiness of veterans, and formed them in battle array with the coolness and precision of a holiday parade." (115, 116) Mentioned in report of Maj. Horace Rice. Wood's regiment numbered 330 men. (687) 325 present for duty, November 20th, at Wartburg, Tenn. (704) Mentioned by Gen. W. H. Carroll, Knoxville, November 26th. (751) Numbering about 800 men; report Gen. W. H. Carroll, Knoxville, December 9th. (753, 773, 814) Referred to by General Zollicoffer at Beech Grove, Ky. Present for duty, 378. (904) Brigade under General Wood, Second division of Central army, Murfreesboro, Tenn., February 23, 1862.
Vol. X, Part I--(383) In S. A. M. Wood's brigade, Third corps, army of the Mississippi, April 6-7, 1862. (568) General Hardee reports this regiment helping in capture of 6 guns at Shiloh. (590-596) Mentioned in General Wood's report of the battle of Shiloh: "Major Helvenston had his horse killed, and was severely wounded by same ball." Six batteries captured; Lieut. Wm. Patton, behaving with great gallantry, was killed. Lieutenant-Colonel Harris, though laboring under severe illness, conducted his regiment throughout both days. (597, 598) Col. John W. Harris reports that his men fought gallantly and bravely. "I was greatly assisted by Major Helvenston on the right, and I am indebted to him for many noble acts of daring and intrepidity, always at his post and at all times cheering on the soldiers. While gallantly charging a battery at the head of the column, he received a wound in the thigh. Captain Ashford, Company B, also acted nobly. At one time, when our force had been driven back, one piece of a battery was left by the gunners and drivers, the lead horse having been shot. Captain Ashford went to the piece, under the enemy's fire, cut the traces of the dead horse, ordered two men near by to assist him, and drove it away--preventing its capture by the enemy. Lieut. Wm. A. Patton, while at his post encouraging his men, fell, facing the foe." (603) Mentioned by Major Hardcastle, Shiloh. (605) Mentioned in report of Twenty-seventh Tennessee infantry. (788) Assignment as above, June 30, 1862.
Vol. XVI, Part 1--(1132) Mentioned in Colonel White's report of the battle of Perryville, October 8, 1862.
Vol. XVII, Part 2--(633) In Wood's brigade, General Bragg commanding army of the Mississippi, June 30, 1862.
Vol. XX, Part I--(660) Same assignment, battle of Murfreesboro. (679) Return of casualties, 24 killed, 142 wounded. Lieuts. David E. Bentley, R. W. Garland, Lewis E. Jackson, Robert W. Roebuck and Benj. H. Russell, killed. (845-851) Mentioned several times in Gen. P. R. Cleburne's report. "The following officers and men of the Sixteenth Alabama distinguished themselves on the field: Col. W. B. Wood and Adjt. B. A. Wilson (wounded), Capt. William Hodges, Company F; Lieut. C. Davis, Company B; Lieut.-Col. G. W. W. Jones, Company G; Lieut. G. Pride, Company A; C. F. Carson, Company C, who remained fighting after he was wounded; Lieut. D. O. Warren, Company F; Lieut. Thomas Salter, Company D, who was wounded, but returned to the field the moment his wounds were dressed; Sergt.-Maj. Robert H. Cherry and Private Harvey G. Sargeant, Company H; Privates William Boyce and James Peeden, Company C; Sergeant Bowen, Company H; Sergt. H. W. Rutland, Company A; Private Peter White, Company F; Robert Williams, Company B; and H. D. Smith, Company A, the latter wounded in both legs." (896-900) Mentioned in Gen. S. A. M. Wood's reports. "Col. W. B. Wood was always in the lead." (900-903) Col. W. B. Wood, in his report, speaks of those mentioned above by General Cleburne; also highly commends Lieutenant-Colonel Helvenston, Major McGaughey, Adjt. A. B. Wilson, Lieuts. D. W. Alexander, W. S. Humphries and J. N. Watson; praises the efficient services of Capt. T. A. Kimball, chaplain, acting in the infirmary corps, and of Surgeon F. S. McMahon and Assistant-Surgeon Wm. M. Mayes. (906) Mentioned in Col. R. Charlton's report.
Vol. XXIII, Part 2--(246) Gen. G. M. Dodge (Union) gives force at 400, April 17, 1863. (942, 959) Assignment as above, July 31st, Maj. J. H. McGaughey in command. August 10, 1863, Col. A. H. Helvenston in command.
No. 51--(12) Assignment as above, Chickamauga campaign. (159-162) Mentioned in General Wood's report of the battle of Chickamauga, September 19-20, 1863; speaks of death from wounds of Major McGaughey. (163-165) Capt. F. A. Ashford, in his report, says: "Both officers and men discharged their duties gallantly. I may be permitted to allude particularly to the noble bearing and fearlessness in discharge of duty of First Lieut. Isaac C. Madding, Company B; Second Lieut. Robert H. Cherry, Company I; First Lieut. G. W. W. Jones, Company G; Second Lieut. John D. Oglesby, Company F, and our gallant commander, Maj. J. H. McGaughey." Gives loss at 25 killed and 218 wounded. 165, 166, 168) Mentioned in General Adams' reports and Col. E. B. Breedlove's report. (533) Roll of honor, battle of Chickamauga: Privates George W. Tims, Company A, killed in action; William A. Watts, Company B, killed in action; William Hill, Company C; Thomas Garner (killed), Company D; Joshua Lewis, Company E; John McMicken (killed), Company F.
No. 55--(660) In Lowrey's brigade, Breckinridge's corps, army of Tennessee, Chattanooga-Ringgold campaign. (754-756, 768) Mentioned in reports of Gen. P. R. Cleburne and Gen. M. P. Lowrey. (769, 770) Report of Maj. F. A. Ashford, commanding, of the battle of November 27, 1863.
No. 56--(618, 804, 823, 885) Assignment as above, to December 31, 1863.
No. 58--(588) Assignment as above, January 20, 1864; Capt. Barton Dickson in command.
No. 59--(867) Assignment as above, April 30, 1864; Lieutenant-Colonel Ashford in command.
No. 74--(639, 647, 655, 662, 669) Assignment as above, to August 31, 1864. (731, 732) Gen. M. P. Lowrey's report of the engagement of July 22d says: "Regiment captured two Yankee flags." (733) Casualties, 5 killed and 56 wounded, July 22d.
No. 78--(852) Assignment as above. Gen. John B. Hood commanding army, September 20, 1864.
No. 93--(667) Assignment as above. Sixteenth, Thirty-third and Forty-fifth Alabama under Lieut.-Col. R. H. Abercrombie, Hood's army, December 10, 1864. (685) Col. F. A. Ashford killed in battle of Franklin, November 30th.
No. 98--(1063) First Alabama (consolidated Sixteenth, Thirty-third and Forty-fifth), Col. Robert H. Abercrombie, April 9, 1865, Shelley's brigade, Stewart's corps, Johnston's army.
No. 100--(736) In Lowrey's brigade, under Capt. J. J. Higgins, March 31, 1865. (773) Assigned to Shelley's brigade, near Smithfield, N. C., April 9, 1865.
No. 104--(1134) Mentioned by Gen. P. D. Roddey, March 20, 1865.
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